Article 47 - Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial
The first paragraph is based on Article 13 of the ECHR:
‘Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity.’
However, in Union law the protection is more extensive since it guarantees the right to an effective remedy before a court. The Court of Justice enshrined that right in its judgment of 15 May 1986 as a general principle of Union law (Case 222/84 Johnston  ECR 1651; see also judgment of 15 October 1987, Case 222/86 Heylens  ECR 4097 and judgment of 3 December 1992, Case C-97/91 Borelli  ECR I-6313). According to the Court, that general principle of Union law also applies to the Member States when they are implementing Union law. The inclusion of this precedent in the Charter has not been intended to change the system of judicial review laid down by the Treaties, and particularly the rules relating to admissibility for direct actions before the Court of Justice of the European Union. The European Convention has considered the Union's system of judicial review including the rules on admissibility, and confirmed them while amending them as to certain aspects, as reflected in Articles 251 to 281 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular in the fourth paragraph of Article 263. Article 47 applies to the institutions of the Union and of Member States when they are implementing Union law and does so for all rights guaranteed by Union law.
The second paragraph corresponds to Article 6(1) of the ECHR which reads as follows:
‘In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.’
In Union law, the right to a fair hearing is not confined to disputes relating to civil law rights and obligations. That is one of the consequences of the fact that the Union is a community based on the rule of law as stated by the Court in Case 294/83, ‘Les Verts’ v European Parliament (judgment of 23 April 1986,  ECR 1339). Nevertheless, in all respects other than their scope, the guarantees afforded by the ECHR apply in a similar way to the Union.
With regard to the third paragraph, it should be noted that in accordance with the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights, provision should be made for legal aid where the absence of such aid would make it impossible to ensure an effective remedy (ECHR judgment of 9 October 1979, Airey, Series A, Volume 32, p. 11). There is also a system of legal assistance for cases before the Court of Justice of the European Union.
Artikel 15(...) 3. De berechting van hem aan wie met het oog daarop zijn vrijheid is ontnomen, vindt binnen een redelijke termijn plaats .Artikel 17 Niemand kan tegen zijn wil worden afgehouden van de rechter die de wet hem toekent.Artikel 18(...) 2. De wet stelt regels omtrent het verlenen van rechtsbijstand aan minder draagkrachtigen. Artikel 121 Met uitzondering van de gevallen bij de wet bepaald vinden de terechtzittingen in het openbaar plaats en houden de vonnissen de gronden in waarop zij rusten. De uitspraak geschiedt in het openbaar.
Article 36 (1) Everyone may assert, through the prescribed procedure, her rights before an independent and impartial court or, in specified cases, before another body. (2) Unless a law provides otherwise, a person who claims that her rights were curtailed by a decision of a public administrative authority may turn to a court for review of the legality of that decision. However, judicial review of decisions affecting the fundamental rights and freedoms listed in this Charter may not be removed from the jurisdiction of courts. (3) Everybody is entitled to compensation for damage caused her by an unlawful decision of a court, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, or as the result of an incorrect official procedure. (4) Conditions therefor and detailed provisions shall be set by law. Article 37 (1) Everyone has the right to refuse to give testimony if she would thereby incriminate herself or a person close to her. (2) In proceedings before courts, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, everyone shall have the right to legal assistance from the very beginning of such proceedings. (3) All parties to such proceedings are equal. (4) Anyone who declares that she does not speak the language in which a proceeding is being conducted has the right to the services of an interpreter. Article 38 (1) No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of her lawful judge. The jurisdiction of courts and the competence of judges shall be provided for by law. (2) Everyone has the right to have her case considered in public, without unnecessary delay, and in her presence, as well as to express her opinion on all of the admitted evidence. The public may be excluded only in cases specified by law.
Článek 36 (1) Každý se může domáhat stanoveným postupem svého práva u nezávislého a nestranného soudu a ve stanovených případech u jiného orgánu. (2) Kdo tvrdí, že byl na svých právech zkrácen rozhodnutím orgánu veřejné správy, může se obrátit na soud, aby přezkoumal zákonnost takového rozhodnutí, nestanoví-li zákon jinak. Z pravomoci soudu však nesmí být vyloučeno přezkoumávání rozhodnutí týkajících se základních práv a svobod podle Listiny. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody způsobené mu nezákonným rozhodnutím soudu, jiného státního orgánu či orgánu veřejné správy nebo nesprávným úředním postupem. (4) Podmínky a podrobnosti upravuje zákon. Článek 37 (1) Každý má právo odepřít výpověď, jestliže by jí způsobil nebezpečí trestního stíhání sobě nebo osobě blízké. (2) Každý má právo na právní pomoc v řízení před soudy, jinými státními orgány či orgány veřejné správy, a to od počátku řízení. (3) Všichni účastníci jsou si v řízení rovni. (4) Kdo prohlásí, že neovládá jazyk, jímž se vede jednání, má právo na tlumočníka. Článek 38 (1) Nikdo nesmí být odňat svému zákonnému soudci. Příslušnost soudu i soudce stanoví zákon. (2) Každý má právo, aby jeho věc byla projednána veřejně, bez zbytečných průtahů a v jeho přítomnosti a aby se mohl vyjádřit ke všem prováděným důkazům. Veřejnost může být vyloučena jen v případech stanovených zákonem.
Článek 36 (1) Každý se může domáhat stanoveným postupem svého práva u nezávislého a nestranného soudu a ve stanovených případech u jiného orgánu. (2) Kdo tvrdí, že byl na svých právech zkrácen rozhodnutím orgánu veřejné správy, může se obrátit na soud, aby přezkoumal zákonnost takového rozhodnutí, nestanoví-li zákon jinak. Z pravomoci soudu však nesmí být vyloučeno přezkoumávání rozhodnutí týkajících se základních práv a svobod podle Listiny. (3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody způsobené mu nezákonným rozhodnutím soudu, jiného státního orgánu či orgánu veřejné správy nebo nesprávným úředním postupem. (4) Podmínky a podrobnosti upravuje zákon. Článek 37 (1) Každý má právo odepřít výpověď, jestliže by jí způsobil nebezpečí trestního stíhání sobě nebo osobě blízké. (2) Každý má právo na právní pomoc v řízení před soudy, jinými státními orgány či orgány veřejné správy, a to od počátku řízení. (3) Všichni účastníci jsou si v řízení rovni. (4) Kdo prohlásí, že neovládá jazyk, jímž se vede jednání, má právo na tlumočníka. Článek 38 (1) Nikdo nesmí být odňat svému zákonnému soudci. Příslušnost soudu i soudce stanoví zákon (2) Každý má právo, aby jeho věc byla projednána veřejně, bez zbytečných průtahů a v jeho přítomnosti a aby se mohl vyjádřit ke všem prováděným důkazům. Veřejnost může být vyloučena jen v případech stanovených zákonem.
See ECHR provisions of Article 6 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 6 Right to a fair trial
1 In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.
2 Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
3 Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:
(a)to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;
(b)to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
(c)to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;
(d)to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(e)to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.
Chapter 2 - Fundamental rights and freedoms: Article 9 If a public authority other than a court of law has deprived an individual of his or her liberty on account of a criminal act or because he or she is suspected of having committed such an act, the individual shall be entitled to have the deprivation of liberty examined before a court of law without undue delay. This shall not, however, apply where the matter concerns the transfer to Sweden of responsibility for executing a penal sanction involving deprivation of liberty according to a sentence in another state. Also those who for reasons other than those specified in paragraph one, have been taken forcibly into custody, shall likewise be entitled to have the matter of custody examined before a court of law without undue delay (...) Also those who for reasons other than those specified in paragraph one, have been taken forcibly into custody, shall likewise be entitled to have the matter of custody examined before a court of law without undue delay. In such a case, examination before a tribunal shall be equated with examination before a court of law, provided the composition of the tribunal has been laid down in law and it is stipulated that the chair of the tribunal shall be currently, or shall have been previously, a permanent salaried judge (...); Article 10 No one may be sentenced to a penalty or penal sanction for an act which was not subject to a penal sanction at the time it was committed. Nor may anyone be sentenced to a penal sanction which is more severe than that which was in force when the act was committed. The provisions laid down here with respect to penal sanctions also apply to forfeiture and other special legal effects of crime (...); Article 11 No court of law may be established on account of an act already committed, or for a particular dispute or otherwise for a particular case. Legal proceedings shall be carried out fairly and within a reasonable period of time. Proceedings in courts of law shall be open to the public.
2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 9 § Om en annan myndighet än en domstol har berövat någon friheten med anledning av brott eller misstanke om brott, ska han eller hon kunna få frihetsberövandet prövat av domstol utan oskäligt dröjsmål. Detta gäller dock inte när det är fråga om att till Sverige flytta över verkställighet av en frihetsberövande påföljd enligt en dom i en annan stat. Även den som av någon annan anledning än som anges i första stycket har blivit omhändertagen tvångsvis, ska kunna få omhändertagandet prövat av domstol utan oskäligt dröjsmål. Med prövning av domstol likställs i sådant fall prövning av en nämnd, om nämndens sammansättning är bestämd i lag och ordföranden i nämnden ska vara eller ha varit ordinarie domare. Har prövningen inte uppdragits åt en myndighet som är behörig enligt första eller andra stycket, ska prövningen göras av allmän domstol; 10 § Ingen får dömas till straff eller annan brottspåföljd för en gärning som inte var belagd med brottspåföljd när den begicks. Inte heller får någon dömas till svårare brottspåföljd för gärningen än den som var föreskriven då. Vad som föreskrivs här om brottspåföljd gäller även förverkande och annan särskild rättsverkan av brott. (...); 11 § Domstol får inte inrättas för en redan begången gärning och inte heller för en viss tvist eller i övrigt för ett visst mål. En rättegång ska genomföras rättvist och inom skälig tid. Förhandling vid domstol ska vara offentlig.
Artículo 24 1. Todas las personas tienen derecho a obtener la tutela efectiva de los jueces y tribunales en el ejercicio de sus derechos e intereses legítimos, sin que, en ningún caso, pueda producirse indefensión.2. Asimismo, todos tienen derecho al Juez ordinario predeterminado por la ley, a la defensa y a la asistencia de letrado, a ser informados de la acusación formulada contra ellos, a un proceso público sin dilaciones indebidas y con todas las garantías, a utilizar los medios de prueba pertinentes para su defensa, a no declarar contra sí mismos, a no confesarse culpables y a la presunción de inocencia. La ley regulará los casos en que, por razón de parentesco o de secreto profesional, no se estará obligado a declarar sobre hechos presuntamente delictivos.Artículo 54 Una ley orgánica regulará la institución del Defensor del Pueblo, como alto comisionado de las Cortes Generales, designado por éstas para la defensa de los derechos comprendidos en este Título, a cuyo efecto podrá supervisar la actividad de la Administración, dando cuenta a las Cortes Generales.Artículo 117 1. La justicia emana del pueblo y se administra en nombre del Rey por Jueces y Magistrados integrantes del poder judicial, independientes, inamovibles, responsables y sometidos únicamente al imperio de la ley. 2. Los Jueces y Magistrados no podrán ser separados, suspendidos, trasladados ni jubilados, sino por alguna de las causas y con las garantías previstas en la ley. 3. El ejercicio de la potestad jurisdiccional en todo tipo de procesos, juzgando y haciendo ejecutar lo juzgado, corresponde exclusivamente a los Juzgados y Tribunales determinados por las leyes, según las normas de competencia y procedimiento que las mismas establezcan.4. Los Juzgados y Tribunales no ejercerán más funciones que las señaladas en el apartado anterior y las que expresamente les sean atribuidas por ley en garantía de cualquier derecho. 5. El principio de unidad jurisdiccional es la base de la organización y funcionamiento de los Tribunales. La ley regulará el ejercicio de la jurisdicción militar en el ámbito estrictamente castrense y en los supuestos de estado de sitio, de acuerdo con los principios de la Constitución. 6. Se prohíben los Tribunales de excepción.Artículo 119La justicia será gratuita cuando así lo disponga la ley y, en todo caso, respecto de quienes acrediten insuficiencia de recursos para litigar.Artículo 120 1. Las actuaciones judiciales serán públicas, con las excepciones que prevean las leyes de procedimiento. 2. El procedimiento será predominantemente oral, sobre todo en materia criminal.3. Las sentencias serán siempre motivadas y se pronunciarán en audiencia pública.
Section 54 An organic act shall regulate the institution of the Defender of the People (Defensor del Pueblo) as high commissioner of the Cortes Generales, appointed by them to defend the rights contained in this Part; for this purpose he or she may supervise the activity of the Administration and report thereon to the Cortes Generales.
Section 119 Justice shall be free when thus provided for by law, and shall in any case be so in respect of those who have insufficient means to sue in court.
Section 241. All persons have the right to obtain effective protection from the judges and the courts in the exercise of their rights and legitimate interests, and in no case may there be a lack of defense.2. Likewise, all have the right to the ordinary judge predetermined by law; to defense and assistance by a lawyer; to be informed of the charges brought against them; to a public trial without undue delays and with full guarantees; to the use of evidence appropriate to their defense; not to make self-incriminating statements; not to plead themselves guilty; and to be presumed innocent.The law shall specify the cases in which, for reasons of family relationship or professional secrecy, it shall not be compulsory to make statements regarding allegedly criminal offences.
Section 1171. Justice emanates from the people and is administered on behalf of the King by judges and magistrates members of the Judicial Power who shall be independent, shall have fixity of tenure, shall be accountable for their acts and subject only to the rule of law. 2. Judges and magistrates may only be dismissed, suspended, transferred or retired on the grounds and subject to the safeguards provided for by the law. 3. The exercise of judicial authority in any kind of action, both in ruling and having judgments executed, is vested exclusively in the courts and tribunals laid down by the law, in accordance with the rules of jurisdiction and procedure which may be established therein. 4. Judges and courts shall not exercise any powers other than those indicated in the foregoing subsection and those which are expressly allocated to them by law as a guarantee of any right.5. The principle of jurisdictional unity is the basis of the organization and operation of the courts. The law shall make provision for the exercise of military jurisdiction strictly within military framework and in cases of state of siege (martial law), in accordance with the principles of the Constitution. 6. Courts of exception are prohibited.
Section 1201. Judicial proceedings shall be public, with the exceptions contemplated in the laws on procedure.2. Proceedings shall be predominantly oral, especially in criminal cases. 3. Judgments shall always specify the grounds therefore, and they shall be delivered in a public hearing.
Article 22 Everyone shall be guaranteed equal protection of rights in any proceeding before a court and before other state authorities, local community authorities, and bearers of public authority that decide on his rights, duties, or legal interests.
Article 23 Everyone has the right to have any decision regarding his rights, duties, and any charges brought against him made without undue delay by an independent, impartial court constituted by law. Only a judge duly appointed pursuant to rules previously established by law and by judicial regulations may judge such an individual.
Article 25 Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to appeal or to any other legal remedy against the decisions of courts and other state authorities, local community authorities, and bearers of public authority by which his rights, duties, or legal interests are determined.
22. člen Vsakomur je zagotovljeno enako varstvo njegovih pravic v postopku pred sodiščem in pred drugimi državnimi organi, organi lokalnih skupnosti in nosilci javnih pooblastil, ki odločajo o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih.
23. člen Vsakdo ima pravico, da o njegovih pravicah in dolžnostih ter o obtožbah proti njemu brez nepotrebnega odlašanja odloča neodvisno, nepristransko in z zakonom ustanovljeno sodišče. Sodi mu lahko samo sodnik, ki je izbran po pravilih, vnaprej določenih z zakonom in s sodnim redom.
25. člen Vsakomur je zagotovljena pravica do pritožbe ali drugega pravnega sredstva proti odločbam sodišč in drugih državnih organov, organov lokalnih skupnosti in nosilcev javnih pooblastil, s katerimi ti odločajo o njegovih pravicah, dolžnostih ali pravnih interesih.
Article 46 (1) Everyone may claim his right in a manner laid down by law in an independent and impartial court and, in cases laid down by law, at another body of the Slovak Republic. (2) Anyone who claims to have been deprived of his rights by a decision of a public administration body may turn to the court to have the lawfulness of such decision reexamined, unless laid down otherwise by law. The reexamination of decisions concerning basic rights and freedoms may not, however, be excluded from the court's authority. (3) Everyone is entitled to compensation for damage incurred as a result of an unlawful decision by a court, or another state or public administration body, or as a result of an incorrect official procedure. (4) Conditions and details concerning judicial and other legal protection shall be laid down by law. Article 47 (…) (2) Everyone has the right to legal assistance in court proceedings, or proceedings before other state or public administration bodies from the start of the proceedings, under conditions laid down by law. (...) Article 48 (1) No one must be removed from his assigned judge. The jurisdiction of the court shall be laid down by law. Article 50 (1) Only the court decides on guilt and punishment for criminal acts.
Čl. 46 (1) Každý sa môže domáhať zákonom ustanoveným postupom svojho práva na nezávislom a nestrannom súde a v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom na inom orgáne Slovenskej republiky.(2) Kto tvrdí, že bol na svojich právach ukrátený rozhodnutím orgánu verejnej správy, môže sa obrátiť na súd, aby preskúmal zákonnosť takéhoto rozhodnutia, ak zákon neustanoví inak. Z právomoci súdu však nesmie byť vylúčené preskúmanie rozhodnutí týkajúcich sa základných práv a slobôd.(3) Každý má právo na náhradu škody spôsobenej nezákonným rozhodnutím súdu, iného štátneho orgánu či orgánu verejnej správy alebo nesprávnym úradným postupom.(4) Podmienky a podrobnosti o súdnej a inej právnej ochrane ustanoví zákon. Čl. 47 (...) (2) Každý má právo na právnu pomoc v konaní pred súdmi, inými štátnymi orgánmi alebo orgánmi verejnej správy od začiatku konania, a to za podmienok ustanovených zákonom. (...) Čl. 48(1) Nikoho nemožno odňať jeho zákonnému sudcovi. Príslušnosť súdu ustanoví zákon.(2) Každý má právo, aby sa jeho vec verejne prerokovala bez zbytočných prieťahov a v jeho prítomnosti a aby sa mohol vyjadriť ku všetkým vykonávaným dôkazom. Verejnosť možno vylúčiť len v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom. Čl. 50(1) Len súd rozhoduje o vine a treste za trestné činy.
Articolul 21 (1) Orice persoana se poate adresa justitiei pentru apararea drepturilor, a libertatilor si a intereselor sale legitime. (2) Nici o lege nu poate îngradi exercitarea acestui drept.(3) Partile au dreptul la un proces echitabil si la solutionarea cauzelor într-un termen rezonabil. (4) Jurisdictiile speciale administrative sunt facultative si gratuite. Articolul 24(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat. (2) În tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.
Article 21(1) Every person is entitled to bring cases before the courts for the defence of his legitimate rights, liberties and interests. (2) The exercise of this right shall not be restricted by any law. (3) All parties shall be entitled to a fair trial and a solution of their cases within a reasonable term. (4) Administrative special jurisdiction is optional and free of charge. Article 24(1) The right to defence is guaranteed. (2) All throughout the trial, the parties shall have the right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choosing or appointed ex officio.
Artigo 20.º (Acesso ao direito e tutela jurisdicional efectiva) 1. A todos é assegurado o acesso ao direito e aos tribunais para defesa dos seus direitos e interesses legalmente protegidos, não podendo a justiça ser denegada por insuficiência de meios económicos. 2. Todos têm direito, nos termos da lei, à informação e consulta jurídicas, ao patrocínio judiciário e a fazer-se acompanhar por advogado perante qualquer autoridade. 3. A lei define e assegura a adequada protecção do segredo de justiça. 4. Todos têm direito a que uma causa em que intervenham seja objecto de decisão em prazo razoável e mediante processo equitativo. 5. Para defesa dos direitos, liberdades e garantias pessoais, a lei assegura aos cidadãos procedimentos judiciais caracterizados pela celeridade e prioridade, de modo a obter tutela efectiva e em tempo útil contra ameaças ou violações desses direitos. Artigo 29.º (Aplicação da lei criminal) 1. Ninguém pode ser sentenciado criminalmente senão em virtude de lei anterior que declare punível a acção ou a omissão, nem sofrer medida de segurança cujos pressupostos não estejam fixados em lei anterior. 2. O disposto no número anterior não impede a punição, nos limites da lei interna, por acção ou omissão que no momento da sua prática seja considerada criminosa segundo os princípios gerais de direito internacional comummente reconhecidos. 3. Não podem ser aplicadas penas ou medidas de segurança que não estejam expressamente cominadas em lei anterior. 4. Ninguém pode sofrer pena ou medida de segurança mais graves do que as previstas no momento da correspondente conduta ou da verificação dos respectivos pressupostos, aplicando-se retroactivamente as leis penais de conteúdo mais favorável ao arguido. 5. Ninguém pode ser julgado mais do que uma vez pela prática do mesmo crime. 6. Os cidadãos injustamente condenados têm direito, nas condições que a lei prescrever, à revisão da sentença e à indemnização pelos danos sofridos. Artigo 203.º (Independência) Os tribunais são independentes e apenas estão sujeitos à lei.
Article 20 (Access to law and effective judicial protection) (1) Everyone is guaranteed access to the law and the courts in order to defend those of his rights and interests that are protected by law, and justice may not be denied to anyone due to lack of sufficient financial means. (2) Subject to the terms of the law, everyone has the right to legal information and advice, to legal counsel and to be accompanied by a lawyer before any authority. (3) The law shall define and ensure adequate protection of the secrecy of legal proceedings. (4) Everyone has the right to secure a decision in any suit in which he is intervening, within a reasonable time limit and by means of fair process. (5) For the purpose of defending the personal rights, freedoms and guarantees and in such a way as to secure effective and timely judicial protection against threats thereto or breaches thereof, the law shall ensure citizens judicial proceedings that are characterised by their swiftness and by the attachment of priority to them. Article 29 (Application of criminal law) (1) No one may be sentenced under the criminal law unless the action or omission in question is punishable under a pre-existing law, nor may any person be the object of a security measure unless the prerequisites therefore are laid down by a pre-existing law. (2) The provisions of the previous paragraph do not preclude the punishment up to the limits laid down by internal Portuguese law of an action or omission which was deemed criminal under the general principles of international law that were commonly recognised at the moment of its commission. (3) No sentence or security measure may be applied unless it is expressly sanctioned by a pre-existing law. (4) No one may be the object of a sentence or security measure that is more severe than those provided for at the moment of the conduct in question, or at that at which the prerequisites for the application of such a measure were fulfilled, while criminal laws whose content is more favourable to the accused person shall be applied retroactively. (5) No one may be tried more than once for commission of the same crime. (6) Citizens who are unjustly convicted have the right to the review of their sentences and to compensation for the damages they have suffered, as laid down by law. Article 203 (Independence) The courts are independent and subject only to the law.
Article 451. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay, before a competent, impartial and independent court.2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced publicly.Article 771. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public authority contrary to law.2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging infringement of freedoms or rights.
Article 45.1. Everyone shall have the right to a fair and public hearing of his case, without undue delay, before a competent, impartial and independent court.2. Exceptions to the public nature of hearings may be made for reasons of morality, State security, public order or protection of the private life of a party, or other important private interest. Judgments shall be announced publicly.Article 77.1. Everyone shall have the right to compensation for any harm done to him by any action of an organ of public authority contrary to law.2. Statutes shall not bar the recourse by any person to the courts in pursuit of claims alleging infringement of freedoms or rights.
1. Without prejudice to the obligation of Member States to respect and protect human dignity, Member States shall ensure by appropriate means that audiovisual media services provided by media service providers under their jurisdiction do not contain any:
(a) incitement to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of a group based on any of the grounds referred to in Article 21 of the Charter;
(b) public provocation to commit a terrorist offence as set out in Article 5 of Directive (EU) 2017/541.
2. The measures taken for the purposes of this Article shall be necessary and proportionate and shall respect the rights and observe principles set out in the Charter.’;
(b) the general public from programmes, user-generated videos and audiovisual commercial communications containing incitement to violence or hatred directed against a group of persons or a member of a group based on any of the grounds referred to in Article 21 of the Charter;
Respect for the Charter
1. All operations shall be selected and implemented while respecting the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (the ‘Charter’) and in accordance with the relevant provisions of Regulation (EU) 2021/1060.
2. In accordance with Article 69(7) of Regulation (EU) 2021/1060, Member States shall ensure the effective examination of complaints. This is without prejudice to the general possibility of citizens and stakeholders to address complaints to the Commission, including with regard to infringements of the Charter.
3. Where the Commission finds that there has been an infringement of the Charter, the Commission shall take into account the gravity of the infringement in its determination of the corrective measures to be applied in line with the relevant provisions of Regulation (EU) 2021/1060.
(24) Where an institution does not present an adequate recovery plan, competent authorities should be empowered to require that institution to take measures necessary to redress the material deficiencies of the plan. That requirement may affect the freedom to conduct a business as guaranteed by Article 16 of the Charter. The limitation of that fundamental right is however necessary to meet the objectives of financial stability. More specifically, such a limitation is necessary in order to strengthen the business of institutions and avoid institutions growing excessively or taking excessive risks without being able to tackle setbacks and losses and to restore their capital base. The limitation is proportionate because it permits preventative action to the extent that it is necessary to address the deficiencies and therefore complies with Article 52 of the Charter.
(49) The limitations on the rights of shareholders and creditors should be in accordance with Article 52 of the Charter. The resolution tools should therefore be applied only to those institutions that are failing or likely to fail, and only when it is necessary to pursue the objective of financial stability in the general interest. In particular, resolution tools should be applied where the institution cannot be wound up under normal insolvency proceedings without destabilising the financial system and the measures are necessary in order to ensure the rapid transfer and continuation of systemically important functions and where there is no reasonable prospect for any alternative private solution, including any increase of capital by the existing shareholders or by any third party sufficient to restore the full viability of the institution. In addition, when applying resolutions tools and exercising resolution powers, the principle of proportionality and the particularities of the legal form of an institution should be taken into account.
(88) In accordance with Article 47 of the Charter, the parties concerned have a right to due process and to an effective remedy against the measures affecting them. Therefore, the decisions taken by the resolution authorities should be subject to a right of appeal.
Subject matter and scope
1. This Regulation lays down uniform rules to address the misuse of hosting services for the dissemination to the public of terrorist content online, in particular on:
(a) reasonable and proportionate duties of care to be applied by hosting service providers in order to address the dissemination to the public of terrorist content through their services and ensure, where necessary, the expeditious removal of or disabling of access to such content;
(b) the measures to be put in place by Member States, in accordance with Union law and subject to suitable safeguards to protect fundamental rights, in particular the freedom of expression and information in an open and democratic society, in order to:
(i) identify and ensure the expeditious removal of terrorist content by hosting service providers; and
(ii) facilitate cooperation among the competent authorities of Member States, hosting service providers and, where appropriate, Europol.
2. This Regulation applies to hosting service providers offering services in the Union, irrespective of their place of main establishment, insofar as they disseminate information to the public.
3. Material disseminated to the public for educational, journalistic, artistic or research purposes or for the purposes of preventing or countering terrorism, including material which represents an expression of polemic or controversial views in the course of public debate, shall not be considered to be terrorist content. An assessment shall determine the true purpose of that dissemination and whether material is disseminated to the public for those purposes.
4. This Regulation shall not have the effect of modifying the obligation to respect the rights, freedoms and principles referred to in Article 6 TEU and shall apply without prejudice to fundamental principles relating to freedom of expression and information, including freedom and pluralism of the media.
5. This Regulation shall be without prejudice to Directives 2000/31/EC and 2010/13/EU. For audiovisual media services as defined in point (a) of Article 1(1) of Directive 2010/13/EU, Directive 2010/13/EU shall prevail.
(73) This Regulation respects fundamental rights and observes the principles recognised in the Charter, in particular Articles 7, 9, 17, 21 and 47 concerning, respectively, respect for private and family life, the right to marry and to found a family according to national laws, property rights, the principle of non-discrimination and the right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial. This Regulation should be applied by the courts and other competent authorities of the Member States in compliance with those rights and principles.
1. This Regulation lays down the rules under which an authority of a Member State, in criminal proceedings, may issue a European Production Order or a European Preservation Order and thereby order a service provider offering services in the Union and established in another Member State, or, if not established, represented by a legal representative in another Member State, to produce or to preserve electronic evidence regardless of the location of the data. This Regulation is without prejudice to the powers of national authorities to address service providers established or represented on their territory for the purpose of ensuring that they comply with national measures similar to those referred to in the first subparagraph.
2. The issuing of a European Production Order or of a European Preservation Order may also be requested by a suspect or an accused person, or by a lawyer on that person’s behalf within the framework of applicable defence rights in accordance with national criminal procedural law.
3. This Regulation shall not have the effect of modifying the obligation to respect the fundamental rights and legal principles as enshrined in the Charter and in Article 6 TEU, and any obligations applicable to law enforcement authorities or judicial authorities in this respect shall remain unaffected. This Regulation applies without prejudice to fundamental principles, in particular the freedom of expression and information, including the freedom and pluralism of the media, respect for private and family life, the protection of personal data, as well as the right to effective judicial protection.
This Directive aims to achieve a more balanced representation of women and men among the directors of listed companies by establishing effective measures that aim to accelerate progress towards gender balance, while allowing listed companies sufficient time to make the necessary arrangements for that purpose.
The purpose of this Directive is to enhance the enforcement of Union law and policies in specific areas by laying down common minimum standards providing for a high level of protection of persons reporting breaches of Union law.
1. Providers of very large online platforms and of very large online search engines shall diligently identify, analyse and assess any systemic risks in the Union stemming from the design or functioning of their service and its related systems, including algorithmic systems, or from the use made of their services.
They shall carry out the risk assessments by the date of application referred to in Article 33(6), second subparagraph, and at least once every year thereafter, and in any event prior to deploying functionalities that are likely to have a critical impact on the risks identified pursuant to this Article. This risk assessment shall be specific to their services and proportionate to the systemic risks, taking into consideration their severity and probability, and shall include the following systemic risks:
(b) any actual or foreseeable negative effects for the exercise of fundamental rights, in particular the fundamental rights to human dignity enshrined in Article 1 of the Charter, to respect for private and family life enshrined in Article 7 of the Charter, to the protection of personal data enshrined in Article 8 of the Charter, to freedom of expression and information, including the freedom and pluralism of the media, enshrined in Article 11 of the Charter, to non-discrimination enshrined in Article 21 of the Charter, to respect for the rights of the child enshrined in Article 24 of the Charter and to a high-level of consumer protection enshrined in Article 38 of the Charter;
1. This Directive lays down rules concerning the right to interpretation and translation in criminal proceedings and proceedings for the execution of a European arrest warrant.
2. The right referred to in paragraph 1 shall apply to persons from the time that they are made aware by the competent authorities of a Member State, by official notification or otherwise, that they are suspected or accused of having committed a criminal offence until the conclusion of the proceedings, which is understood to mean the final determination of the question whether they have committed the offence, including, where applicable, sentencing and the resolution of any appeal.
3. Where the law of a Member State provides for the imposition of a sanction regarding minor offences by an authority other than a court having jurisdiction in criminal matters, and the imposition of such a sanction may be appealed to such a court, this Directive shall apply only to the proceedings before that court following such an appeal.
4. This Directive does not affect national law concerning the presence of legal counsel during any stage of the criminal proceedings, nor does it affect national law concerning the right of access of a suspected or accused person to documents in criminal proceedings.