Article 7 - Respect for private and family life
Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.
The rights guaranteed in Article 7 correspond to those guaranteed by Article 8 of the ECHR. To take account of developments in technology the word "correspondence" has been replaced by "communications".
In accordance with Article 52(3), the meaning and scope of this right are the same as those of the corresponding article of the ECHR. Consequently, the limitations which may legitimately be imposed on this right are the same as those allowed by Article 8 of the ECHR:
"1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others."
Artikel 10 1. Ieder heeft, behoudens bij of krachtens de wet te stellen beperkingen, recht op eerbiediging van zijn persoonlijke levenssfeer. 2. De wet stelt regels ter bescherming van de persoonlijke levenssfeer in verband met het vastleggen en verstrekken van persoonsgegevens. 3. De wet stelt regels inzake de aanspraken van personen op kennisneming van over hen vastgelegde gegevens en van het gebruik dat daarvan wordt gemaakt, alsmede op verbetering van zodanige gegevens. Artikel 12 1. Het binnentreden in een woning zonder toestemming van de bewoner is alleen geoorloofd in de gevallen bij of krachtens de wet bepaald, door hen die daartoe bij of krachtens de wet zijn aangewezen. 2. Voor het binnentreden overeenkomstig het eerste lid zijn voorafgaande legitimatie en mededeling van het doel van het binnentreden vereist, behoudens bij de wet gestelde uitzonderingen. 3. Aan de bewoner wordt zo spoedig mogelijk een schriftelijk verslag van het binnentreden verstrekt. Indien het binnentreden in het belang van de nationale veiligheid of dat van de strafvordering heeft plaatsgevonden, kan volgens bij de wet te stellen regels de verstrekking van het verslag worden uitgesteld. In de bij de wet te bepalen gevallen kan de verstrekking achterwege worden gelaten, indien het belang van de nationale veiligheid zich tegen verstrekking blijvend verzet.Artikel 131. Het briefgeheim is onschendbaar, behalve, in de gevallen bij de wet bepaald, op last van de rechter.2. Het telefoon- en telegraafgeheim is onschendbaar, behalve, in de gevallen bij de wet bepaald, door of met machtiging van hen die daartoe bij de wet zijn aangewezen.
Article 7 (1) The inviolability of the person and of her privacy is guaranteed. They may be limited only in cases provided for by law. Article 10 (1) Everyone has the right to demand that her human dignity, personal honour, and good reputation be respected, and that her name be protected. (2) Everyone has the right to be protected from any unauthorized intrusion into her private and family life. (3) Everyone has the right to be protected from the unauthorized gathering, public revelation, or other misuse of her personal data. Article 12 (1) A person’s dwelling is inviolable. It may not be entered without the permission of the person living there. (2) A dwelling may be searched only for the purposes of a criminal proceeding on the basis of a search warrant issued by a judge in writing and giving the reasons therefore. The manner in which a dwelling may be searched shall be specified by law. (3) Other encroachments upon the inviolability of a dwelling may be permitted by law only if such is necessary in a democratic society for the protection of the life or health of individuals, for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others, or in order to avert a serious threat to public security and order. If a dwelling is also used for a business enterprise of for carrying on other economic activities, the law may also permit such encroachments if they are necessary to fulfill the duties of public administration. Article 13 No one may violate the confidentiality of letters or the confidentiality of other papers or records, whether privately kept or sent by post or by some other means, except in the cases and in the manner designated by law. The confidentiality of communications sent by telephone, telegraph, or by other similar devices is guaranteed in the same way..
Článek 7 (1) Nedotknutelnost osoby a jejího soukromí je zaručena. Omezena může být jen v případech stanovených zákonem(...) Článek 10 (1) Každý má právo, aby byla zachována jeho lidská důstojnost, osobní čest, dobrá pověst a chráněno jeho jméno. (2) Každý má právo na ochranu před neoprávněným zasahováním do soukromého a rodinného života. (3) Každý má právo na ochranu před neoprávněným shromažďováním, zveřejňováním nebo jiným zneužíváním údajů o své osobě. Článek 12 (1) Obydlí je nedotknutelné. Není dovoleno do něj vstoupit bez souhlasu toho, kdo v něm bydlí. (2) Domovní prohlídka je přípustná jen pro účely trestního řízení, a to na písemný odůvodněný příkaz soudce. Způsob provedení domovní prohlídky stanoví zákon. (3) Jiné zásady do nedotknutelnosti obydlí mohou být zákonem dovoleny, jen je-li to v demokratické společnosti nezbytné pro ochranu života nebo zdraví osob, pro ochranu práv a svobod druhých anebo pro odvrácení závažného ohrožení veřejné bezpečnosti a pořádku. Pokud je obydlí užíváno také pro podnikání nebo provozování jiné hospodářské činnosti, mohou být takové zásahy zákonem dovoleny, též je-li to nezbytné pro plnění úkolů veřejné správy. Článek 13 Nikdo nesmí porušit listovní tajemství ani tajemství jiných písemností a záznamů, ať již uchovávaných v soukromí, nebo zasílaných poštou anebo jiným způsobem, s výjimkou případů a způsobem, které stanoví zákon. Stejně se zaručuje tajemství zpráv podávaných telefonem, telegrafem nebo jiným podobným zařízením.
See ECHR provisions of Arrticle 8 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998. Schedule 1 Aarticle 8 Right to respect for private and family life
1Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
Chapter 1 - Basic Principles of the Form of Government: Article 2 (...) The public institutions shall promote the ideals of democracy as guidelines in all sectors of society and protect the private and family lives of the individual. (...) Chapter 2 - Fundamental Rights and Freedoms; Article 6 Everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against any physical violation also in cases other than cases under Articles 4 and 5. Everyone shall likewise be protected against body searches, house searches and other such invasions of privacy, against examination of mail or other confidential correspondence, and against eavesdropping and the recording of telephone conversations or other confidential communications. In addition to what is laid down in paragraph one, everyone shall be protected in their relations with the public institutions against significant invasions of their personal privacy, if these occur without their consent and involve the surveillance or systematic monitoring of the individual’s personal circumstances.
1 kapitlet - Statskickets grunder: 2 § (...)Det allmänna ska verka för att demokratins idéer blir vägledande inom samhällets alla områden samt värna den enskildes privatliv och familjeliv. 2 kapitlet - Grundläggande fri- och rättigheter: 6 § Var och en är gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot påtvingat kroppsligt ingrepp även i andra fall än som avses i 4 och 5 §§. Var och en är dessutom skyddad mot kroppsvisitation, husrannsakan och liknande intrång samt mot undersökning av brev eller annan förtrolig försändelse och mot hemlig avlyssning eller upptagning av telefonsamtal eller annat förtroligt meddelande. Utöver vad som föreskrivs i första stycket är var och en gentemot det allmänna skyddad mot betydande intrång i den personliga integriteten, om det sker utan samtycke och innebär övervakning eller kartläggning av den enskildes personliga förhållanden.
Artículo 18 1. Se garantiza el derecho al honor, a la intimidad personal y familiar y a la propia imagen. 2. El domicilio es inviolable. Ninguna entrada o registro podrá hacerse en él sin consentimiento del titular o resolución judicial, salvo en caso de flagrante delito. 3. Se garantiza el secreto de las comunicaciones y, en especial, de las postales, telegráficas y telefónicas, salvo resolución judicial. 4. La ley limitará el uso de la informática para garantizar el honor y la intimidad personal y familiar de los ciudadanos y el pleno ejercicio de sus derechos.
Article 181.The right to honour, to personal and family privacy and to the own image is guaranteed. 2. The home is inviolable. No entry or search may be made without the consent of the householder or a legal warrant, except in cases of flagrante delicto. 3.Secrecy of communications is guaranteed, particularly regarding postal, telegraphic and telephonic communications, except in the event of a court order. 4. The law shall restrict the use of data processing in order to guarantee the honour and personal and family privacy of citizens and the full exercise of their rights.
Article 35The inviolability of the physical and mental integrity of every person, his privacy and personality rights shall be guaranteed.Article 36 Dwellings are inviolable. No one may, without a court order, enter the dwelling or other premises of another person, nor may he search the same, against the will of the resident. Any person whose dwelling or other premises are searched has the right to be present or to have a representative present. Such a search may only be conducted in the presence of two witnesses. Subject to conditions provided by law, an official may enter the dwelling or other premises of another person without a court order, and may in exceptional circumstances conduct a search in the absence of witnesses, where this is absolutely necessary for the direct apprehension of a person who has committed a criminal offence or to protect people or property.Article 37The privacy of correspondence and other means of communication shall be guaranteed. Only a law may prescribe that on the basis of a court order the protection of the privacy of correspondence and other means of communication and the inviolability of personal privacy be suspended for a set time where such is necessary for the institution or course of criminal proceedings or for reasons of national security. Article 38 The protection of personal data shall be guaranteed. The use of personal data contrary to the purpose for which it was collected is prohibited. The collection, processing, designated use, supervision, and protection of the confidentiality of personal data shall be provided by law. Everyone has the right of access to the collected personal data that relates to him and the right to judicial protection in the event of any abuse of such data.
35. člen Zagotovljena je nedotakljivost človekove telesne in duševne celovitosti, njegove zasebnosti ter osebnostnih pravic.
36. člen Stanovanje je nedotakljivo. Nihče ne sme brez odločbe sodišča proti volji stanovalca vstopiti v tuje stanovanje ali v druge tuje prostore, niti jih ne sme preiskovati. Pri preiskavi ima pravico biti navzoč tisti, čigar stanovanje ali prostori se preiskujejo, ali njegov zastopnik. Preiskava se sme opraviti samo v navzočnosti dveh prič. Pod pogoji, ki jih določa zakon, sme uradna oseba brez odločbe sodišča vstopiti v tuje stanovanje ali v tuje prostore in izjemoma brez navzočnosti prič opraviti preiskavo, če je to neogibno potrebno, da lahko neposredno prime storilca kaznivega dejanja ali da se zavarujejo ljudje in premoženje.
37. člen Zagotovljena je tajnost pisem in drugih občil. Samo zakon lahko predpiše, da se na podlagi odločbe sodišča za določen čas ne upošteva varstvo tajnosti pisem in drugih občil in nedotakljivost človekove zasebnosti, če je to nujno za uvedbo, ali potek kazenskega postopka ali za varnost države.
Article 16 (1) The right of every individual to integrity and privacy shall be guaranteed. This right may be restricted only in cases specifically provided by a law. (...) Article 19 (1) Everyone has the right to the preservation of human dignity, personal honour, reputation and the protection of good name. (2) Everyone has the right to protection against unauthorized interference in private and family life. Article 21 (1) A person's home is inviolable. It may not be entered without the resident's consent. (2) A house search is admissible only in connection with criminal proceedings and only on the basis of written order of the judge. The method of carrying out a house search shall be laid down by law. (3) Other infringements upon the inviolability of one's home may be permitted by law only if it is necessary in a democratic society in order to protect people’s lives, health, or property, to protect the rights and freedoms of others, or to prevent a serious threat to public order. If the home is used also for business, or to perform other economic activity, such infringements may be permitted by law also when this is necessary to the discharge of the tasks of public administration. Article 22(1) The privacy of letters, and secrecy of mailed messages and other written documents and the protection of personal data is guaranteed. (2) No one may violate the privacy of letters and the secrecy of other written documents and records, whether they are kept in privacy, or sent by mail or in any other way, with exception of cases which shall be laid down by law. Equally guaranteed is the secrecy of messages conveyed by telephone, telegraph, or other similar means.
Čl. 16(1) Nedotknuteľnosť osoby a jej súkromia je zaručená. Obmedzená môže byť len v prípadoch ustanovených zákonom.(...) Čl. 19(1) Každý má právo na zachovanie ľudskej dôstojnosti, osobnej cti, dobrej povesti a na ochranu mena.(2) Každý má právo na ochranu pred neoprávneným zasahovaním do súkromného a rodinného života. (3) Každý má právo na ochranu pred neoprávneným zhromažďovaním, zverejňovaním alebo iným zneužívaním údajov o svojej osobe.Čl. 21(1) Obydlie je nedotknuteľné. Nie je dovolené doň vstúpiť bez súhlasu toho, kto v ňom býva. (2) Domová prehliadka je prípustná len v súvislosti s trestným konaním, a to na písomný a odôvodnený príkaz sudcu. Spôsob vykonania domovej prehliadky ustanoví zákon. (3) Iné zásahy do nedotknuteľnosti obydlia možno zákonom dovoliť iba vtedy, keď je to v demokratickej spoločnosti nevyhnutné na ochranu života, zdravia alebo majetku osôb, na ochranu práv a slobôd iných alebo na odvrátenie závažného ohrozenia verejného poriadku. Ak sa obydlie používa aj na podnikanie alebo vykonávanie inej hospodárskej činnosti, takéto zásahy môžu byť zákonom dovolené aj vtedy, keď je to nevyhnutné na plnenie úloh verejnej správy.Čl. 22(1) Listové tajomstvo, tajomstvo dopravovaných správ a iných písomností a ochrana osobných údajov sa zaručujú. (2) Nikto nesmie porušiť listové tajomstvo ani tajomstvo iných písomností a záznamov, či už uchovávaných v súkromí, alebo zasielaných poštou, alebo iným spôsobom; výnimkou sú prípady, ktoré ustanoví zákon. Rovnako sa zaručuje tajomstvo správ podávaných telefónom, telegrafom alebo iným podobným zariadením.
Articolul 26(1) Autoritatile publice respecta si ocrotesc viata intima, familiala si privata. (...) Articolul 27 (1) Domiciliul si resedinta sunt inviolabile. Nimeni nu poate patrunde sau ramâne în domiciliul ori în resedinta unei persoane fara învoirea acesteia. (2) De la prevederile alineatului (1) se poate deroga prin lege pentru urmatoarele situatii: a) executarea unui mandat de arestare sau a unei hotarâri judecatoresti; b) înlaturarea unei primejdii privind viata, integritatea fizica sau bunurile unei persoane; c) apararea securitatii nationale sau a ordinii publice; d) prevenirea raspândirii unei epidemii. (3) Perchezitia se dispune de judecator si se efectueaza în conditiile si în formele prevazute de lege. (4) Perchezitiile în timpul noptii sunt interzise, în afara de cazul infractiunilor flagrante.Articolul 28 Secretul scrisorilor, al telegramelor, al altor trimiteri postale, al convorbirilor telefonice si al celorlalte mijloace legale de comunicare este inviolabil.Articolul 30...(6) Libertatea de exprimare nu poate prejudicia demnitatea, onoarea, viata particulara a persoanei si nici dreptul la propria imagine.
Article 26(1) The public authorities shall respect and protect the intimate, family and private life. (...) Article 27(1) The domicile and the residence are inviolable. No one shall enter or remain in the domicile or residence of a person without his consent. (2) An exemption from the provisions of paragraph (1) can operate, according to the law, for the following instances: a) carrying into execution a warrant for arrest or a court decree; b) removing a risk to someone's life, physical integrity, or a person's assets; c) defending national security or public order; d) preventing the spread of an epidemic. (3) Searches shall only be ordered by a judge and carried out under the terms and forms stipulated by the law. (4) Searches during the night shall be forbidden, except for crimes in flagrante delicto.Article 28 Secrecy of the letters, telegrams and other postal communications, of telephone conversations, and of any other legal means of communication is inviolable.Article 30...(6) Freedom of expression shall not be prejudicial to the dignity, honour, privacy of a person, and to the right to one's own image.
Artigo 26.º (Outros direitos pessoais) 1. A todos são reconhecidos os direitos à identidade pessoal, ao desenvolvimento da personalidade, à capacidade civil, à cidadania, ao bom nome e reputação, à imagem, à palavra, à reserva da intimidade da vida privada e familiar e à protecção legal contra quaisquer formas de discriminação. 2. A lei estabelecerá garantias efectivas contra a obtenção e utilização abusivas, ou contrárias à dignidade humana, de informações relativas às pessoas e famílias. Artigo 34.º (Inviolabilidade do domicílio e da correspondência) 1. O domicílio e o sigilo da correspondência e dos outros meios de comunicação privada são invioláveis. 2. A entrada no domicílio dos cidadãos contra a sua vontade só pode ser ordenada pela autoridade judicial competente, nos casos e segundo as formas previstos na lei. 3. Ninguém pode entrar durante a noite no domicílio de qualquer pessoa sem o seu consentimento, salvo em situação de flagrante delito ou mediante autorização judicial em casos de criminalidade especialmente violenta ou altamente organizada, incluindo o terrorismo e o tráfico de pessoas, de armas e de estupefacientes, nos termos previstos na lei. 4. É proibida toda a ingerência das autoridades públicas na correspondência, nas telecomunicações e nos demais meios de comunicação, salvos os casos previstos na lei em matéria de processo criminal.
Article 26 (Other personal rights) (1) Everyone shall possess the right to a personal identity, to the development of their personality, to civil capacity, to citizenship, to a good name and reputation, to their likeness, to speak out, to protect the privacy of their personal and family life, and to legal protection against any form of discrimination. (2) The law shall lay down effective guarantees against the procurement and misuse of information concerning persons and families and its use contrary to human dignity. Article 34 (Inviolability of home and correspondence) (1) Domiciles and the secrecy of correspondence and other means of private communication shall be inviolable. (2) Entry into a citizen’s home may only be ordered by the competent judicial authority and then only in such cases and in compliance with such forms as may be laid down by law. (3) No one shall enter any person’s home at night without his consent, save in situations of flagrante delicto, or with judicial authorisation in cases of especially violent or highly organised crime, including terrorism and trafficking in persons, arms or narcotics, as laid down by law. (4) The public authorities shall be prohibited from interfering in any way with correspondence, telecommunications or other means of communication, save in such cases as the law may provide for in relation to criminal proceedings.
Article 47 Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honour and good reputation and to make decisions about his personal life.Article 49The freedom and privacy of communication shall be ensured. Any limitations thereon may be imposed only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.Article 50The inviolability of the home shall be ensured. Any search of a home, premises or vehicles may be made only in cases and in a manner specified by statute.
Art. 47.Każdy ma prawo do ochrony prawnej życia prywatnego, rodzinnego, czci i dobrego imienia oraz do decydowania o swoim życiu osobistym. Art. 49. Zapewnia się wolność i ochronę tajemnicy komunikowania się. Ich ograniczenie może nastąpić jedynie w przypadkach określonych w ustawie i w sposób w niej określony.Art. 50. Zapewnia się nienaruszalność mieszkania. Przeszukanie mieszkania, pomieszczenia lub pojazdu może nastąpić jedynie w przypadkach określonych w ustawie i w sposób w niej określony
Article 38(1) Except with his own consent or by way of parental discipline, no person shall be subjected to the search of his person or his property or the entry by others on his premises. (2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision -- (a) that is reasonably required in the interest of defence, public safety, public order, public morality or decency, public health, town and country planning, the development and utilisation of mineral resources, or the development and utilisation of any property in such a manner as to promote the public benefit; (b) that is reasonably required for the purpose of promoting the rights or freedoms of other persons; (c) that authorises a department of the Government of Malta or a local government authority, or a body corporate established by law for a public purpose, to enter on the premises of any person in order to inspect those premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any tax, rate or due or in order to carry out work connected with any property or installation which is lawfully on those premises and which belongs to that Government, that authority, or that body corporate, as the case may be; or (d) that authorises, for the purpose of enforcing a judgment or order of a court, the search of any person or property by order of a court or entry upon any premises by such order or that is necessary for the purpose of preventing or detecting criminal offence, and except so far as that provision or, as the ease may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
Art. 11.(1) L’Etat garantit les droits naturels de la personne humaine et de la famille. Article 11.(3) L’Etat garantit la protection de la vie privée, sauf les exceptions fixées par la loi. Article 15. Le domicile est inviolable. Aucune visite domiciliaire ne peut avoir lieu que dans les cas prévus par la loi et dans la forme qu’elle prescrit. Art. 28. Le secret des lettres est inviolable. - La loi détermine quels sont les agents responsables de la violation du secret des lettres
confiées à la poste. La loi réglera la garantie à donner au secret des télégrammes.
Migration has been a constant feature of human history with a profound impact on European society, its economy and its culture. With a well-managed system, migration can contribute to growth, innovation and social dynamism. Key societal challenges faced by the world today – demography, climate change, security, the global race for talent, and inequality – all have an impact on migration. Policy imperatives such as free movement in the Schengen area, safeguarding fundamental rights, ensuring security, and filling skills gaps, all call for an effective migration policy. The task facing the EU and its Member States, while continuing to address urgent needs, is to build a system that manages and normalises migration for the long term and which is fully grounded in European values and international law.
Article 1 Subject
This Directive lays down:
(a) the conditions governing the exercise of the right of free movement and residence within the territory of the Member States by Union citizens and their family members;
(b) the right of permanent residence in the territory of the Member States for Union citizens and their family members;
(c) the limits placed on the rights set out in (a) and (b) on grounds of public policy, public security or public health.
Article 2 Definitions
For the purposes of this Directive:
1) "Union citizen" means any person having the nationality of a Member State;
2) "Family member" means:
(a) the spouse;
(b) the partner with whom the Union citizen has contracted a registered partnership, on the basis of the legislation of a Member State, if the legislation of the host Member State treats registered partnerships as equivalent to marriage and in accordance with the conditions laid down in the relevant legislation of the host Member State;
(c) the direct descendants who are under the age of 21 or are dependants and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b);
(d) the dependent direct relatives in the ascending line and those of the spouse or partner as defined in point (b);
3) "Host Member State" means the Member State to which a Union citizen moves in order to exercise his/her right of free movement and residence.
Article 1 - Subject-matter
‘This Directive lays down:
(a) the conditions of entry to, and residence for more than 90 days in, the territory of the Member States, and the rights, of third-country nationals and of their family members in the framework of an intra-corporate transfer; [...]
Article 19 - Family members
1. Directive 2003/86/EC shall apply in the first Member State and in second Member States which allow the intra-corporate transferee to stay and work on their territory in accordance with Article 22 of this Directive, subject to the derogations laid down in this Article.
2. By way of derogation from Article 3(1) and Article 8 of Directive 2003/86/EC, family reunification in the Member States shall not be made dependent on the requirement that the holder of the permit issued by those Member States on the basis of this Directive has reasonable prospects of obtaining the right of permanent residence and has a minimum period of residence.
3. By way of derogation from the third subparagraph of Article 4(1) and from Article 7(2) of Directive 2003/86/EC, the integration measures referred to therein may be applied by the Member States only after the persons concerned have been granted family reunification.
4. By way of derogation from the first subparagraph of Article 5(4) of Directive 2003/86/EC, residence permits for family members shall be granted by a Member State, if the conditions for family reunification are fulfilled, within 90 days from the date on which the complete application was submitted. The competent authority of the Member State shall process the residence permit application for the intra-corporate transferee's family members at the same time as the application for the intra-corporate transferee permit or the permit for long-term mobility, in cases where the residence permit application for the intra-corporate transferee's family members is submitted at the same time. The procedural safeguards laid down in Article 15 shall apply accordingly.
5. By way of derogation from Article 13(2) of Directive 2003/86/EC, the duration of validity of the residence permits of family members in a Member State shall, as a general rule, end on the date of expiry of the intra-corporate transferee permit or the permit for long-term mobility issued by that Member State.
6. By way of derogation from Article 14(2) of Directive 2003/86/EC and without prejudice to the principle of preference for Union citizens as expressed in the relevant provisions of the relevant Acts of Accession, the family members of the intra-corporate transferee who have been granted family reunification shall be entitled to have access to employment and self-employed activity in the territory of the Member State which issued the family member residence permit.‘
1. The Parliamentary Assembly is deeply concerned about growing political discourse and action against foreigners, which are a real threat to the protection of refugees and in particular their family life. Families must not be torn apart and should not be prevented from reuniting after an often dangerous and challenging departure from their country of origin, where their fundamental rights to safety and security were threatened.
Article 8 – Right to respect for private and family life
1. Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
2. There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:
(a) The same right to enter into marriage;
(b) The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;
(c) The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and at its dissolution;
(d) The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their marital status, in matters relating to their children; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
(e) The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise these rights;
(f) The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship, wardship, trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions where these concepts exist in national legislation; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;
(g) The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a family name, a profession and an occupation;
(h) The same rights for both spouses in respect of the ownership, acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property, whether free of charge or for a valuable consideration.
2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.
1. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Article 22 – Respect for privacy
1. No person with disabilities, regardless of place of residence or living arrangements, shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence or other types of communication or to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation. Persons with disabilities have the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
2. States Parties shall protect the privacy of personal, health and rehabilitation information of persons with disabilities on an equal basis with others.
Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 19 December 2018
C. Right to privacy and family life
‘34. Article 12 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights provides that “[n]o one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence.” A similar provision is found in Article 17(1) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and in other United Nations instruments. This right has been interpreted broadly, encompassing inter alia the protection against forced evictions, the demolition of homes or property, the destruction of traditional burial grounds, and the expulsion of foreigners. The right to family life also applies in relation to persons deprived of liberty, who should be allowed to communicate with their families, subject only to reasonable restrictions established by law.
35. The right to family life is reflected in the general preference for preserving the family unit and non-separation of its members, particularly dependent members. The Convention on the Rights of the Child affirms the right of children not to be separated from their parents against their will, except where “necessary for the best interest of the child,” such as in cases of abuse or neglect (art. 9.1), following a judicial determination to this effect. Children deprived of their family environment should be provided alternative care (art. 20), and, whenever possible, to have contact with their parents (art. 9(3)). According to article 23(4) of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in no case shall a child be separated from parents on the basis of a disability of either the child or one or both of the parents.
36. The Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families requires States to ensure “the protection of the unity of the families,” including by facilitating the reunification of documented migrants with their spouses and dependent children (art. 44). The Convention on the Rights of the Child urges State Parties to deal with such requests in a “positive, humane and expeditious manner” (art. 10).‘