Article 19 - Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary
January
2018

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary

Report summary
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
Guidance on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in external border management when working in or together with third countries
December
2016

Guidance on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in external border management when working in or together with third countries

Paper
EU Member States are increasingly involved in border management activities on the high seas, within – or in cooperation with – third countries, and at the EU’s borders. Such activities entail risks of violating the principle of non-refoulement, the cornerstone of the international legal regime for the protection of refugees, which prohibits returning individuals to a risk of persecution. This guidance outlines specific suggestions on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in these situations – a practical tool developed with the input of experts during a meeting held in Vienna in March of 2016.
Scope of the principle of non-refoulement in contemporary border management: evolving areas of law
December
2016

Scope of the principle of non-refoulement in contemporary border management: evolving areas of law

Report
EU Member States are increasingly involved in border management activities on the high seas, within – or in cooperation with – third countries, and at the EU’s borders. Such activities entail risks of violating the principle of non-refoulement, the cornerstone of the international legal regime for the protection of refugees, which prohibits returning individuals to a risk of persecution. This report aims to encourage fundamental-rights compliant approaches to border management, including by highlighting potential grey areas.
Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015
May
2016

Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015

Annual report
This Focus takes a closer look at asylum and migration issues in the European Union (EU) in 2015. It looks at the effectiveness of measures taken or proposed by the EU and its Member States to manage this situation, with particular reference to their fundamental rights compliance.
Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points
November
2014

Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points

Report
Together with two FRA sister reports on the EU’s air and southern sea borders, this report’s findings serve to inform EU and Member State practitioners and policy makers of fundamental rights challenges that can emerge at land borders. Increased awareness should also help to create a shared understanding among border guards of what fundamental obligations mean for their daily work, ultimately enhancing fundamental rights compliance at the EU’s external borders.
Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration
June
2014

Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration

Handbook
The Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration is jointly produced by the European Court of Human Rights and the FRA. It examines the relevant law in the field of asylum, borders and immigration stemming from both European systems: the European Union and the Council of Europe. It provides an accessible guide to the various European standards relevant to asylum, borders and immigration.
Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders - Summary
August
2013

Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders - Summary

Report summary
This FRA report examines the conditions at Europe’s southern sea borders with respect to the most fundamental rights of a person, the right to life and the right not to be sent back to torture, persecution or inhuman treatment. It looks at sea border surveillance and disembarkation procedures, as well as general issues such as European Union (EU) policy, training and Frontex-coordinated operations, and examines practices across the EU Member States researched – Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.
EU solidarity and Frontex: fundamental rights challenges
August
2013

EU solidarity and Frontex: fundamental rights challenges

Report
The majority of irregular arrivals by sea to the European Union (EU) occur in the Mediterranean. Although the phenomenon is not widespread throughout the EU, it affects the EU as a whole. This publication reviews the solidarity measures the EU has established to support those countries most affected by irregular arrivals by sea. It will focus on the fundamental rights challenges raised by such measures but will not discuss whether these measures are sufficient and adequate for genuinely sharing the costs associated with the arrivals. This publication will also touch upon EU funding instruments and intra-EU relocation from Malta and more thoroughly describe the operational cooperation with Frontex.
Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders
March
2013

Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders

Report
This FRA report examines the conditions at Europe’s southern sea borders with respect to the most fundamental rights of a person, the right to life and the right not to be sent back to torture, persecution or inhuman treatment. It looks at sea border surveillance and disembarkation procedures, as well as training and Frontex-coordinated operations. It examines practices across the EU Member States researched – Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.
Detention of third country nationals in return procedures
November
2010

Detention of third country nationals in return procedures

Report - thematic
The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) examined law and practice in the EU 27 on the deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants pending their removal against the applicable international human rights law framework.
Access to effective remedies: The asylum-seeker perspective
September
2010

Access to effective remedies: The asylum-seeker perspective

Report - thematic
Drawing on evidence from interviews with almost 900 asylum seekers, this report presents asylum-seeker experiences in submitting an appeal against a negative asylum decision. While documenting good practices, it also highlights several obstacles which make it difficult for asylum applicants to access effective remedies.