Article 24 - The rights of the child

Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures – Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU
April
2018

Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures – Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU

Report
The methods used to determine the age of an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity, integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
Children’s rights and justice – Minimum age requirements in the EU
April
2018

Children’s rights and justice – Minimum age requirements in the EU

Report
This report outlines Member States’ approaches to age requirements and limits regarding child participation in judicial proceedings; procedural safeguards for, and rights of, children involved in criminal proceedings; as well as issues related to depriving children of their liberty.
Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges
February
2018

Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges

Paper
EU Member States’ legal and practical responses to migrants and refugees implicate several of their fundamental rights, as enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU). The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) has regularly reported on these issues since September 2015. This report highlights key trends and persistent concerns between October 2016 and December 2017. It focuses on five areas: access to territory, reception conditions, asylum procedures, unaccompanied children and immigration detention.
Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary
January
2018

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary

Summary
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
Child-friendly justice (Easy read)
January
2018

Child-friendly justice (Easy read)

Easy read publication
Inside this book you will read about the justice system and the problems in justice for children and how to fix the problems.
Mapping minimum age requirements concerning the rights of the child in the EU
November
2017

Mapping minimum age requirements concerning the rights of the child in the EU

Online publication
International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The aim is to assist EU Member States in addressing these issues and to facilitate the EU in exercising its competence to support and coordinate Member States’ actions related to children and youth.
European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children
June
2017

European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children

Report
Up to one third of migrants arriving in the European Union since the summer of 2015 have been children. The current emphasis on speedier asylum processing and making returns more effective may trigger increased use of immigration detention, possibly also affecting children. The detention of children implicates various fundamental rights and will only be in line with EU law if limited to exceptional cases. This report aims to support practitioners in implementing relevant polices in line with applicable law by outlining available safeguards against unlawful and arbitrary detention and highlighting promising practices.
Child-friendly justice - Checklist for professionals
February
2017

Child-friendly justice - Checklist for professionals

Other
The treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern across the European Union (EU). With this checklist, FRA aims to help professionals by providing a list of actions that need to be taken for judicial proceedings to be child-friendly.
Child-friendly justice - Perspectives and experiences of children involved in judicial proceedings as victims, witnesses or parties in nine EU Member States
February
2017

Child-friendly justice - Perspectives and experiences of children involved in judicial proceedings as victims, witnesses or parties in nine EU Member States

Report
Around 2.5 million children participate in judicial proceedings across the European Union (EU) every year, affected by parental divorce or as victims of, or witnesses to, crime. Although their effective participation in such proceedings is vital for improving the operation of justice, the treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern. FRA investigated to what extent children’s rights to be heard, to be informed, to be protected, and to non-discrimination are fulfilled in practice.
Key migration issues: one year on from initial reporting
October
2016

Key migration issues: one year on from initial reporting

Paper
In view of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, the European Commission asked FRA to collect data about the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in those Member States that have been particularly affected by large migration movements. This month's focus section reviews persistent key issues since initial reporting began one year ago.
Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015
May
2016

Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015

Annual report
This Focus takes a closer look at asylum and migration issues in the European Union (EU) in 2015. It looks at the effectiveness of measures taken or proposed by the EU and its Member States to manage this situation, with particular reference to their fundamental rights compliance.
Violence against  children with disabilities
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities

Easy read publication
This book will tell you about violence and children with disabilities. It looks at violence, where it happens, and why people are violent.
Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU

Report
Children with disabilities face significant barriers to enjoying their fundamental rights. They are often excluded from society, sometimes living in facilities far from their families. They are also denied access to basic services, such as health care and education, and endure stigma and discrimination, as well as sexual, physical and psychological violence. FRA scrutinised the important but underreported issue of violence against children with disabilities, carrying out desk research and conducting interviews with knowledgeable stakeholders. This report presents the results of that research.
Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU - Summary
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU - Summary

Summary
Children with disabilities face significant barriers to enjoying their fundamental rights. They are often excluded from society, sometimes living in facilities far from their families. They are also denied access to basic services, such as health care and education, and endure stigma and discrimination, as well as sexual, physical and psychological violence. This summary report outlines relevant international and European standards and reviews national legislation and policies addressing violence against children with disabilities. The summary also explores the extent and different causes, settings and forms of such violence, and presents measures and initiatives to prevent it.
Handbook on European law relating to the rights of the child
November
2015

Handbook on European law relating to the rights of the child

Handbook
Children are full-fledged holders of rights. They are beneficiaries of all human and fundamental rights and subjects of special regulations, given their specific characteristics. This handbook aims to illustrate how European law and case law accommodate the specific interests and needs of children.
Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union
October
2015

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union

Report
This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation. The research covers four specific areas, namely the type of guardianship systems in place, the profile of appointed guardians, the appointment procedures, and the tasks of the guardians.
The fundamental rights situation of intersex people
May
2015

The fundamental rights situation of intersex people

Paper
This paper examines the legal situation of intersex people from a fundamental rights perspective. It draws on evidence from the Agency’s updated legal analysis on homophobia, transphobia, and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, which now includes a section on intersex issues.
Child-friendly justice – Perspectives and experiences of professionals on children’s participation in civil and criminal judicial proceedings in 10 EU Member States
May
2015

Child-friendly justice – Perspectives and experiences of professionals on children’s participation in civil and criminal judicial proceedings in 10 EU Member States

Report
Each year thousands of children take part in criminal and civil judicial proceedings, affected by parental divorce or as victims or witnesses to crime. Such proceedings can be stressful for anyone. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) investigated whether children’s rights are respected in these proceedings.
Child-friendly justice – perspectives and experiences of professionals – Summary
May
2015

Child-friendly justice – perspectives and experiences of professionals – Summary

Summary
Making justice systems more child‑friendly improves the protection of children, enhances their meaningful participation and at the same time improves the operation of justice. The findings in this summary can provide Member States with useful tools to identify barriers, gaps or weaknesses in their judicial proceedings, especially in the process of transposing and implementing relevant EU directives. Also available in BG - CS - DA - DE - EL - ES - ET - FI - FR - HR - HU - IT - LV - LT - MT - PL - PT - RO - SK - SK - SV
Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points
November
2014

Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points

Report
Together with two FRA sister reports on the EU’s air and southern sea borders, this report’s findings serve to inform EU and Member State practitioners and policy makers of fundamental rights challenges that can emerge at land borders. Increased awareness should also help to create a shared understanding among border guards of what fundamental obligations mean for their daily work, ultimately enhancing fundamental rights compliance at the EU’s external borders.
Fundamental Rights Conference 2011 - Summary conclusions by the FRA
December
2011

Fundamental Rights Conference 2011 - Summary conclusions by the FRA

Conference Paper
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights held its annual Fundamental Rights Conference 'Dignity and rights of irregular migrants' in Warsaw on 21-22 November 2011. This paper summarises the discussions that took place during the conference and presents follow-up activities to be undertaken by FRA.
Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States
December
2010

Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States

Report
The arrival of thousands of separated children in the European Union from third countries poses a serious challenge to EU institutions and Member States, since, according to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, they have a duty to care for and protect children. This report examines the experiences and views of 336 separated, asylum-seeking children and those of 302 adults responsible for their care across 12 EU Member States.
December
2010

Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States

Summary
The arrival of thousands of separated children in the European Union from third countries poses a serious challenge to EU institutions and Member States, since, according to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, they have a duty to care for and protect children. This summary highlights the key findings of the FRA research on separated, asylum-seeking children in EU Member States.
Detention of third country nationals in return procedures
November
2010

Detention of third country nationals in return procedures

Report
The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) examined law and practice in the EU 27 on the deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants pending their removal against the applicable international human rights law framework.
Experience of discrimination, social marginalisation and violence: A comparative study of Muslim and non-Muslim youth in three EU Member States
October
2010

Experience of discrimination, social marginalisation and violence: A comparative study of Muslim and non-Muslim youth in three EU Member States

Report
Social marginalisation and discrimination have severe consequences for any society – both need to be addressed as a priority, as they are directly linked to violent behaviour in young people. This research shows a high degree of overlap between three EU Member States when considering explanatory factors to violent attitudes or acts of violence committed by young people.
Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices
July
2009

Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices

Report
Trafficking in human beings is a major problem both in the EU and worldwide. Every year a substantial number of children fall victim to trafficking for sexual exploitation or other purposes. There are extremely low numbers of convictions in child trafficking cases. Overall, the report finds that the EU must do more to address the issue. The FRA calls for better legislation to combat child trafficking. The protection and care for victims, in particular, must be improved.