EU Member States are increasingly involved in border management activities on the high seas, within – or in
cooperation with – third countries, and at the EU’s borders. Such activities entail risks of violating the principle
of non-refoulement, the cornerstone of the international legal regime for the protection of refugees, which
prohibits returning individuals to a risk of persecution. This report aims to encourage fundamental-rights
compliant approaches to border management, including by highlighting potential grey areas.