Multiple discrimination

Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare

Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare

Certain people are seen as particularly vulnerable to unequal treatment, because they share a combination of characteristics that may trigger discrimination. A Roma woman sterilised without her informed consent, for example, has suffered discrimination not just because of her sex, as all women do not face this treatment, nor just because she is Roma, as Roma men may not face this treatment. The discriminatory treatment is based specifically on the intersection of her sex and ethnic origin.
Ludovica Banfi (PhD)

Ludovica Banfi (PhD)

Programme Manager, Social Research
Freedoms and Justice Department

Ludovica Banfi is a member of the Agency’s Asylum, Migration and Borders, and Equality teams. Her areas of expertise with respect to the FRA’s work include: health and migration; multiple discrimination; gender equality and social research methods.

She has managed several projects in areas such as migration and domestic work, healthcare of migrants, multiple discrimination and transnationalism in the context of migration in the EU and neighbouring countries. She previously worked as a research fellow at the University of Bologna, the University of Trento and at Middlesex University and as a research assistant in NGOs in Canada, Italy and Ukraine.

She holds a PhD in sociology and has published a number of articles, book chapters and reports in the fields of migration and discrimination, including Genderace, The use of racial anti-discrimination laws: gender and citizenship in a multicultural context - Final report (2010).

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