This Toolkit is released as an online beta version. Teachers are invited to share their experiences in using this Toolkit by emailing one of the project contacts.


The National Consultative Commssion of Human Rights fulfills its role through the adoption of opinions and studies that are made public and sent to the Prime Minister and relevant ministries. The opinions and studies are made either at the request of the Government or on the Commission’s own initiative. They always contain clear recommendations to the authorities. In accordance with the Paris Principles (“A national institution shall be given as broad a mandate as possible”), the French Commission is endowed with a generalist and wide mandate including civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights, as well as humanitarian laws and actions and new technologies, bioethics and the right to a healthy environment (3rd generation). The mandate also includes Human Rights Education activities, and the release of an annual report on the state of racism in France.    


National Consultative Commission of Human Rights

The Secretary General
Mr. Michel Forst
35, rue Saint-Dominique
75700 Paris
Tel:+33 142757706/13
Fax: +33 142757714






The Haute Autorité de Lutte contre les Discriminations et pour l’Egalité (HALDE – The French Equal Opportunities and Anti-Discrimination Commission) is an independent statutory authority, which assists all individuals who turn to it in identifying discriminatory practices and countering them.



11 Rue Saint Georges
75009 Paris



Child Support:

La Défenseure des Enfants  is an organisation established by the French State since 2000 to give effect to the rights of the child guarantied by the French adoption of the Convention of the Rights of the Child.


La Défenseure des Enfants

104, boulevard A. Blanqui
FR-75013 Paris



This organisation provides support to citizens by improving relations between the French government and the citizen.


Le Médiateur de la République

7, rue Saint-florentin
75008 Paris
Tel: +33
Fax: +33



Amnesty International France is a campaigning organization. The main purpose is to protect people wherever justice, fairness, freedom and truth are denied. At present priority campaigns are Stop Violence Against Women and Poverty and Human Rights.


Amnesty International France

72-76 Bd de la Villette
FR-75940 Paris cedex 19


Since its launch in 2001, the project “Teaching remembrance - Education for the prevention of crimes against humanity” has pursued objectives based on the requirements of Recommendation (2001) 15 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on history teaching in twenty-first-century Europe. At the same time, the project is a response to the commitment made by European Education Ministers in Strasbourg on 18 October 2002 to introduce a Day of Remembrance of the Holocaust and for the Prevention of Crimes against Humanity in schools, on dates chosen in line with the histories of the individual Member States.

Council of Europe: Teaching Remembrance

67075 Strasbourg, France
Tel: +33 (0)3 88 41 22 45
Fax: +33 (0)3 88 41 27 06








Founded in 1953, the UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet), commonly referred to as UNESCO Associated Schools, is a global network of more than 9000 educational institutions in 180 countries.

UNESCO, Associated Schools Programme

7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 7, France





Faced with the challenge of not just promoting but establishing respect for human rights, basic freedoms and the values of tolerance and mutual respect, UNESCO recognizes that teaching the lessons of the Holocaust is fundamental to this enterprise.

The United Nations has urged Member States to develop educational programmes to instill the memory of the tragedy of the Holocaust in future generations to prevent genocide from occurring again. UNESCO acts as a resource to promote these learning materials and to provide a platform for institutions, teachers, students and interested parties to access resources on education for Holocaust remembrance.


UNESCO: Education for Holocaust Remembrance

7, place de Fontenoy
75352 Paris 7, France



The Shoah Memorial was opened to the public in January
2005, rue Geoffroy l'Asnier, on the site of the Mémorial du Martyr Juif Inconnu (Memorial to the Unknown Jewish Martyr, often referred to as the Center Documentation Juive Contemporaine - CDJC). The CDJC had moved to Paris after the Liberation and in 1956 found its natural setting within the walls of the Memorial.
As a result of support of the French state, the City of Paris and the Regional Council of
the Ile-de-France (greater Paris regional authorities), the Memorial was able to design
a project to extend its building. With this new extension, the Memorial offers more space to researchers in the reading rooms and present a permanent exhibition on the history of the Shoah, a multimedia center, an auditorium and the Wall of Names in the courtyard of the Memorial where the names of all the Jews deported from France are engraved.

Situated at this turning point of the “century of genocides”, open to the new century, the new institution is intended as a bridge between the men and women who were contemporaries of the Shoah and those who did not experience this period of history, either directly or through the mediation of their parents.
Although it is a continuation of the CDJC and the Memorial to the Unknown Jewish Martyr, the Shoah Memorial is also a new phase in the transmission of the memory and the lessons of the Shoah, which so far had been essentially borne by the direct witnesses of the extermination of Jews of Europe.

The Memorial is a resource center, the first and foremost collection of archives on the Shoah in Europe, but it is also a “museum of vigilance”, designed to learn, understand and experience


Mémorial de la Shoah

17, rue Geoffroy-l'Asnier
75004 Paris

Tel: +33 1 42 77 44 72
Fax: +33 1 53 01 17 44





Yahad - In Unum ( is a research organization investigating the mass executions of 1.5 million Jews and Roma/Gypsy people in Eastern Europe between 1941 and 1944. This is sometimes referred to as “The Holocaust by Bullets,” the title of a book written by Yahad’s president, Father Patrick Desbois. While the atrocities of the concentration camps are well-known, this genocide perpetrated as far east as Ukraine is not.

Over the past six years, the work of Yahad – in Unum has confirmed the location of numerous mass graves, many previously unknown.  More than 1,700 Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian witnesses to the executions have been interviewed and their testimony recorded.  Yahad – in Unum’s research has accelerated in recent months as investigators race to identify and document as many of the graves as possible while remaining witnesses are still alive. 

To increase awareness of this episode, the first European Resource Centre on the “Holocaust by Bullets” has opened in 2009 in Paris, bringing together all the primary and secondary sources discovered in Eastern Europe. Interviews with witnesses have been translated, and researchers, educators and families seeking to trace a lost relative now have access to microfilms of archives from around the world.

Yahad-in-Unum is an association founded in 2004 by the late Cardinal Lustiger and the World Jewish Congress. Its mission has attracted the active support of some of the world’s leading historians, academics and institutions including the University of Paris IV-Sorbonne, the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, France’s Memorial de la Shoah, the Catholic Church and leading Jewish organizations, as well as the governments of France, Germany, Russia, the Ukraine and the United States. 


What does Yahad - in Unum want to achieve?

Yahad - in Unum has three aims:

To restore dignity to thousands of Jews and Roma who were murdered and thrown into mass graves;

To fight against Holocaust denial;

To disseminate information on this episode, almost totally absent from history books.

What has been achieved so far?

a) Visits to uncover mass graves and take witness testimony

Since 2004, our teams have undertaken visits which have :

identified the topography of execution sites,

gathered ballistic evidence, and

collected oral evidence by filming interviews with residents who witnessed the events (the Ukrainian and Belarussian witnesses are all aged between 70 and 80, and without them it would be impossible to locate the mass graves). 

Between 10 and 15 of these visits are conducted each year, lasting 15 to 20 days. The team always consists of researchers, a photographer, a ballistics expert, translators and sound technicians to record the testimony.

Each visit is prepared following close study of:

the regional topography,

the German archives of the Nuremberg trials in Ludwigsburg, and

the Soviet archives of the special state commission of 1944, which are housed in the museum of the Holocaust Memorial in Washington DC.

Some 1,700 filmed interviews have been conducted and more than 600 shooting places found. The work is due to continue in Poland, Russia and Belarus.

b) Dissemination of our findings

The 1,700 collected testimonies and documents from German and Soviet archives can be viewed in our research center in Paris, in the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington and soon also on our homepage.

Every year, Yahad - In Unum organizes a seminar on Holocaust by bullets for European teachers. This year, 17 teachers from 14 European countries are invited to participate in the seminar which is organized in cooperation with the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam. The teachers will be trained by the stuff of Yahad - In Unum, Anne Frank House and international researches on the Holocaust by bullets in Eastern Europe, a little-known chapter of the WWII history. The teachers will be provided with a pedagogical Toolkit they can use in their classes afterwards.

Our research has already given rise to several exhibitions:

The exhibition "The mass shootings of Jews in Ukraine 1941-1944. The Holocaust by bullets", conceived by the Shoah Memorial and the Yahad-In Unum Association, can be borrowed from the Shoah Memorial in Paris. By retracing the killing procedures, it contributes to a better understanding of how the genocide of European Jews was put in place. The exhibition contains a selection of testimonies, documents and photographs from German and Soviet archives, ballistic proof found on the sites, photographs of shooting sites and witnesses. It also includes historical research and explanations which cover the time period before the WWII and the years between 1939-1945.

This exhibition has been exposed at the Shoah Memorial in Paris (2007), the Museum of Jewish Heritage in New York (2008 -2009), the Forum for Levande Historia in Stockholm (2009) and at the National Monument Kamp in Vught (2009 –2010)

Other, smaller photo exhibitions has been shown at the European Parlament in 2010, in Hong Kong, Australia and USA.

Each exhibition is aimed at high school children and involves visits to schools to encourage the inclusion of this period of history in the curriculum.

Members of Yahad's crew give small conferences at European schools (25 conferences only in 2011). They try to transmit to students the historical knowledge on the Holocaust by bullets on the one hand and to familiarize them with the Yahad's field work on the other hand. To illustrate the topic, we use archive documents, testimonies and photographs. Such a conference can be organized on demand in any European country.

Bigger, international conferences are held not only in Europe (“The Shoah in Ukraine” in 2007, “Operation 1005” in 2009), but also in the USA, Hong Kong and Australia.

This year, an international symposium on Nazi camps on the occupied Soviet territories will be held at the Sorbonne University in Paris.

The university also stages two courses each year to keep alive research and teaching of this period of history attended by young Masters students.



114, Boulevard de Magenta, 75010 Paris
Tel: +33 01 42 88 04 39
Fax: +33 01 42 88 17 63




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