Artikolu 16 - Il-libertà ta' l-intrapriża
Il-libertà ta' l-intrapriża skond il-liġi ta' l-Unjoni u l-liġijiet u l-prattiċi nazzjonali hija rikonoxxuta.
Dan l-Artikolu hu bbażat fuq il-każistika tal-Qorti tal-Ġustizzja, li rrikonoxxiet il-libertà li tiġi eżerċitata attività ekonomika jew kummerċjali (ara s-sentenzi ta' l- 14 ta' Mejju 1974, Nold (4/73, Ġabra 1974, p. 491, punt 14) u tas- 27 ta' Settembru 1979, SpA Eridiana u oħrajn (230-78, Ġabra 1979, p. 2749, punti 20 sa 31) u l-libertà ta' kuntrattazzjoni (ara, fost l-oħrajn, is-sentenzi tas- 16 ta' Jannar 1979, Sukkerfabriken Nykøbing, (151/78, Ġabra 1979, p. 1, punt 19) u tal- 5 ta' Ottubru 1999, Spanja vs Il-Kummissjoni (C-240/97, Ġabra 1999, p. I-6571, punt 99) u fuq l-Artikolu 119(1) u (3) tat-Trattat dwar il-Funzjonament ta' l-Unjoni Ewropea, li jirrikonoxxi l-kompetizzjoni libera. Għandu jinftiehem li dan id-dritt għandu jiġi eżerċitat b'rispett għall-liġi ta' l-Unjoni u tal-leġislazzjoni nazzjonali. Dan id-dritt jista' jkun soġġett għal-limitazzjonijiet previsti fl-Artikolu 52(1) tal-Karta.
Artikel 19 1. Bevordering van voldoende werkgelegenheid is voorwerp van zorg der overheid.2. De wet stelt regels omtrent de rechtspositie van hen die arbeid verrichten en omtrent hun bescherming daarbij, alsmede omtrent medezeggenschap.3. Het recht van iedere Nederlander op vrije keuze van arbeid wordt erkend, behoudens de beperkingen bij of krachtens de wet gesteld.
Article 26 (1) Everybody has the right to the free choice of her profession and the training for that profession, as well as the right to engage in enterprise and pursue other economic activity. (2) Conditions and limitations may be set by law upon the right to engage in certain professions or activities.
Článek 26 (1) Každý má právo na svobodnou volbu povolání a přípravu k němu, jakož i právo podnikat a provozovat jinou hospodářskou činnost. (2) Zákon může stanovit podmínky a omezení pro výkon určitých povolání nebo činností.
Artículo 38 Se reconoce la libertad de empresa en el marco de la economía de mercado. Los poderes públicos garantizan y protegen su ejercicio y la defensa de la productividad, de acuerdo con las exigencias de la economía general y, en su caso, de la planificación.
Section 38 Free enterprise is recognized within the framework of a market economy. The public authorities guarantee and protect its exercise and the safeguarding of productivity in accordance with the demands of the general economy and, as the case may be, of economic planning.
Article 74 Free economic initiative shall be guaranteed.The conditions for establishing commercial organisations shall be established by law. Commercial activities may not be pursued in a manner contrary to the public interest.Unfair competition practices and practices which restrict competition in a manner contrary to the law are prohibited.
74. člen Gospodarska pobuda je svobodna. Zakon določa pogoje za ustanavljanje gospodarskih organizacij. Gospodarska dejavnost se ne sme izvajati v nasprotju z javno koristjo. Prepovedana so dejanja nelojalne konkurence in dejanja, ki v nasprotju z zakonom omejujejo konkurenco.
Article 35 (1) Everyone has the right to a free choice of profession and to appropriate training, as well as the right to conduct entrepreneurial or other gainful activity. (2) Conditions and restrictions with regard to the execution of certain professions or activities may be laid down by law. (...)
Čl. 35 (1) Každý má právo na slobodnú voľbu povolania a prípravu naň, ako aj právo podnikať a uskutočňovať inú zárobkovú činnosť. (2) Zákon môže ustanoviť podmienky a obmedzenia výkonu určitých povolaní alebo činností. (…).
Articolul 41(1) Dreptul la munca nu poate fi îngradit. Alegerea profesiei, a meseriei sau a ocupatiei, precum si a locului de munca este libera. Articolul 45Accesul liber al persoanei la o activitate economica, libera initiativa si exercitarea acestora în conditiile legii sunt garantate.
Article 41(1) The right to work shall not be restricted. Everyone has a free choice of his/her profession, trade or occupation, as well as work place. Article 45Free access of persons to an economic activity, free enterprise, and their exercise under the law shall be guaranteed.
Artigo 61.º (Iniciativa privada, cooperativa e autogestionária) 1. A iniciativa económica privada exerce-se livremente nos quadros definidos pela Constituição e pela lei e tendo em conta o interesse geral. 2. A todos é reconhecido o direito à livre constituição de cooperativas, desde que observados os princípios cooperativos. 3. As cooperativas desenvolvem livremente as suas actividades no quadro da lei e podem agrupar-se em uniões, federações e confederações e em outras formas de organização legalmente previstas. 4 A lei estabelece as especificidades organizativas das cooperativas com participação pública. 5. É reconhecido o direito de autogestão, nos termos da lei.
Article 61 (Private enterprise, cooperatives and work management) (1) Private economic enterprise shall be undertaken freely within the overall frameworks laid down by this Constitution and the law and with regard for the general interest. (2) Everyone shall possess the right to freely form cooperatives, subject to compliance with cooperative principles. (3) Cooperatives shall pursue their activities freely within the overall framework laid down by law and may group themselves together in unions, federations and confederations and other forms of organisation provided for by law. (4) The law shall lay down the specific organisational requirements for cooperatives in which the state or any public body possesses an interest. (5) There shall be the right to worker management, as laid down by law.
Article 65.1. Everyone shall have the freedom to choose and to pursue his occupation and to choose his place of work. Exceptions shall be specified by statute. (...)
Art. 65. 1. Każdemu zapewnia się wolność wyboru i wykonywania zawodu oraz wyboru miejsca pracy. Wyjątki określa ustawa. (...)
Article 18The State shall encourage private economic enterprise. Article 19The State shall provide for the protection and development of artisan trades.
Article 11.(6) La liberté du commerce et de l’industrie, l’exercice de la profession libérale et du travail agricole sont garantis, sauf les restrictions à établir par la loi. (...)
Article 11.(6) The freedom of commerce and industry, the exercise of liberal professions and of agricultural labor are guaranteed, save for the restrictions established by the law. (...)
(24) Where an institution does not present an adequate recovery plan, competent authorities should be empowered to require that institution to take measures necessary to redress the material deficiencies of the plan. That requirement may affect the freedom to conduct a business as guaranteed by Article 16 of the Charter. The limitation of that fundamental right is however necessary to meet the objectives of financial stability. More specifically, such a limitation is necessary in order to strengthen the business of institutions and avoid institutions growing excessively or taking excessive risks without being able to tackle setbacks and losses and to restore their capital base. The limitation is proportionate because it permits preventative action to the extent that it is necessary to address the deficiencies and therefore complies with Article 52 of the Charter.
(49) The limitations on the rights of shareholders and creditors should be in accordance with Article 52 of the Charter. The resolution tools should therefore be applied only to those institutions that are failing or likely to fail, and only when it is necessary to pursue the objective of financial stability in the general interest. In particular, resolution tools should be applied where the institution cannot be wound up under normal insolvency proceedings without destabilising the financial system and the measures are necessary in order to ensure the rapid transfer and continuation of systemically important functions and where there is no reasonable prospect for any alternative private solution, including any increase of capital by the existing shareholders or by any third party sufficient to restore the full viability of the institution. In addition, when applying resolutions tools and exercising resolution powers, the principle of proportionality and the particularities of the legal form of an institution should be taken into account.
(88) In accordance with Article 47 of the Charter, the parties concerned have a right to due process and to an effective remedy against the measures affecting them. Therefore, the decisions taken by the resolution authorities should be subject to a right of appeal.
This Directive aims to achieve a more balanced representation of women and men among the directors of listed companies by establishing effective measures that aim to accelerate progress towards gender balance, while allowing listed companies sufficient time to make the necessary arrangements for that purpose.
on combating late payment in commercial transactions Text with EEA relevance The aim of this Directive is stated to be ‘to combat late payment in commercial transactions, in order to ensure the proper functioning of the internal market, thereby fostering the competitiveness of undertakings and in particular of SMEs.’ In its recitals it mentions that in ‘the context of enhanced efforts to prevent the abuse of freedom of contract to the detriment of creditors, organisations officially recognised as representing undertakings and organisations with a legitimate interest in representing undertakings should be able to take action before national courts or administrative bodies in order to prevent the continued use of contract terms or practices which are grossly unfair to the creditor.’ (recital 29)
‘(2) The freedom to provide services includes the right of undertakings to provide services in another Member State, to which they may post their own workers temporarily in order to provide those services there. It is necessary for the purpose of the posting of workers to distinguish this freedom from the free movement of workers, which gives every citizen the right to move freely to another Member State to work and reside there for that purpose and protects them against discrimination as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment in comparison to nationals of that Member State.‘
‘4. In certain jurisdictions, individuals enjoy direct recourse against business entities for violations of economic, social and cultural rights, whether in order to impose on such private entities (negative) duties to refrain from certain courses of conduct or to impose (positive) duties to adopt certain measures or to contribute to the fulfilment of such rights.16 There are also a large number of domestic laws designed to protect specific economic, social and cultural rights, that apply directly to business entities, such as in the areas of non-discrimination, health-care provision, education, the environment, employment relations and consumer safety.
5. In addition, under international standards, business entities are expected to respect Covenant rights regardless of whether domestic laws exist or are fully enforced in practice.17 The present general comment therefore also seeks to assist the corporate sector in discharging their human rights obligations and assuming their responsibilities, thus mitigating any reputational risks that may be associated with violations of Covenant rights within their sphere of influence.‘