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Crimes motivated by racism, xenophobia and related intolerances, the mainstreaming of elements of extremist ideology in political and public discourse, and ethnic discrimination all persist throughout the European Union. Growing alarm has been expressed at the national, EU and international levels with regard to manifestations of violent racism and other forms of intolerance especially in two EU Member States: Greece and Hungary. An additional important concern is the substantial parliamentary representation of parties that use paramilitary tactics or are closely associated with paramilitary groups and use extremist rhetoric to target irregular migrants in Greece, and the Roma and Jews in Hungary.
In this context, FRA took the initiative to collect data and compile the present thematic situation report. It examines the effectiveness of responses by public authorities, statutory human rights bodies, and civil society organisations to racism, discrimination, intolerance and extremism in these two EU Member States.
Despite the fact that this report focuses on two countries, the identification of barriers to counter such phenomena is of relevance to the EU as a whole. The proposals contained in the report on issues such as tackling racist and related crime, increasing trust in the police, and countering extremism could therefore be considered for use in all EU Member States.