eu-charter

EU Charter of Fundamental Rights

Článek 47 - Právo na účinnou právní ochranu a spravedlivý proces

Článek 47 - Právo na účinnou právní ochranu a spravedlivý proces

Každý, jehož práva a svobody zaručené právem Unie byly porušeny, má za podmínek stanovených tímto článkem právo na účinné prostředky nápravy před soudem.
Každý má právo, aby jeho věc byla spravedlivě, veřejně a v přiměřené lhůtě projednána nezávislým a nestranným soudem, předem zřízeným zákonem. Každému musí být umožněno poradit se, být obhajován a být zastupován.
Bezplatná právní pomoc je poskytnuta všem, kdo nemají dostatečné prostředky, pokud je to nezbytné k zajištění účinného přístupu ke spravedlnosti.

  • Text:

    První pododstavec je založen na článku 13 EÚLP:
    „Každý, jehož práva a svobody přiznané touto Úmluvou byly porušeny, musí mít účinné právní prostředky nápravy před národním orgánem, i když se porušení dopustily osoby při plnění úředních povinností.“
    Avšak v právu Unie je ochrana širší, neboť je zaručeno právo na účinnou soudní ochranu. Soudní dvůr zakotvil toto právo ve svém rozsudku ze dne 15. května 1986 jako obecnou zásadu práva Unie (věc 222/84 Johnston, Sb. rozh. 1986, s. 1651; viz rovněž rozsudek ze dne 15. října 1987 ve věci 222/86 Heylens, Sb. rozh. 1987, s. 4097 a rozsudek ze dne 3. prosince 1992 ve věci C-97/91 Borelli, Sb. rozh. 1992, s. I-6313). Podle názoru Soudu se uvedená obecná zásada práva Unie vztahuje rovněž na členské státy, když uplatňují právo Unie. Zahrnutím této judikatury do Listiny není sledována změna systému soudního přezkumu stanoveného smlouvami, a zejména pravidel přípustnosti přímých žalob k Soudnímu dvoru Evropské unie. Evropský konvent posoudil systém soudního přezkumu v Unii, včetně pravidel přípustnosti, a potvrdil je s úpravami v některých oblastech, jak odrážejí články 251 až 281 Smlouvy o fungování Evropské unie, a zejména čl. 263 čtvrtý pododstavec. Článek 47 se vztahuje na orgány Unie a členských států, provádějí-li právo Unie, a to pro všechna práva zaručená právem Unie.

    Druhý pododstavec odpovídá čl. 6 odst. 1 EÚLP, který zní:
    „Každý má právo na to, aby jeho záležitost byla spravedlivě, veřejně a v přiměřené lhůtě projednána nezávislým a nestranným soudem, zřízeným zákonem, který rozhodne o jeho občanských právech nebo závazcích nebo o oprávněnosti jakéhokoli trestního obvinění proti němu. Rozsudek musí být vyhlášen veřejně, avšak tisk a veřejnost mohou být vyloučeny buď po dobu celého nebo části procesu v zájmu mravnosti, veřejného pořádku nebo národní bezpečnosti v demokratické společnosti, nebo když to vyžadují zájmy nezletilých nebo ochrana soukromého života účastníků anebo, v rozsahu považovaném soudem za zcela nezbytný, pokud by, vzhledem ke zvláštním okolnostem, veřejnost řízení mohla být na újmu zájmům spravedlnosti.“
    V právu Unie není právo na soudní projednání omezeno na spory týkající se občanských práv nebo závazků. Je to jeden z důsledků skutečnosti, že Unie je právním společenstvím, jak prohlásil Soudní dvůr ve věci 294/83, „Les Verts" v. Evropský parlament (rozsudek ze dne 23. dubna 1986, Sb. rozh. 1986, s. 1339). Avšak ve všech jiných hlediscích než rozsah se záruky přiznané EÚLP uplatňují v Unii obdobným způsobem.
    Pokud jde o třetí pododstavec, je třeba poznamenat, že v souladu s judikaturou Evropského soudu pro lidská práva by měla být poskytnuta právní pomoc v případech, kdy by její neexistence znemožnila zajistit účinnou právní ochranu (rozsudek ESLP ze dne 9. 10. 1979, Airey, řada A, svazek 32, s. 11). U věcí projednávaných před Soudním dvorem Evropské unie rovněž existuje systém právní pomoci.

    Source:
    Úřední věstník Evropské unie C 303/17 - 14.12.2007
    Preamble - Explanations relating to the Charter of Fundamental Rights:
    Tato vysvětlení byla původně vyhotovena pod vedením prezídia Konventu, který vypracoval Listinu základních práv Evropské unie. Byla aktualizována pod vedením prezídia Evropského konventu s ohledem na změny návrhu znění Listiny provedené Konventem (zejména článků 51 a 52) a na vývoj práva Unie. Ačkoliv sama nemají právní závaznost, jsou cenným výkladovým nástrojem pro vyjasnění ustanovení Listiny.
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61 results found

  • Constitution of Malta
    Country:
    Malta

    Article 39(1) Whenever any person is charged with a criminal offence he shall, unless the charge is withdrawn, be afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial court established by law.(2) Any court or other adjudicating authority prescribed by law for the determination of the existence or the extent of civil rights or obligations shall be independent and impartial; and, where proceedings for such a determination are instituted by any person before such a court or other adjudicating authority, the ease shall be given a fair hearing within a reasonable time.(3) Except with the agreement of all the parties thereto, all proceedings of every court and proceedings relating to the determination of the existence or the extent of a person's civil rights or obligations before any other adjudicating authority, including the announcement of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held in public. (...)

  • Constitution du Grand Duche de Luxembourg
    Country:
    Luxembourg

    Article 13. Nul ne peut être distrait contre son gré du juge que la loi lui assigne. Article 86. Nul tribunal, nulle juridiction contentieuse ne peuvent être établis qu’en vertu d’une loi. Il ne peut être créé de commissions ni de tribunaux extraordinaires, sous quelque dénomination que ce soit. Article 88. Les audiences des tribunaux sont publiques, à moins que cette publicité ne soit dangereuse pour l’ordre ou les moeurs, et, dans ce cas, le tribunal le déclare par un jugement. Article 89. Tout jugement est motivé. Il est prononcé en audience publique.

  • Constitution of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
    Country:
    Luxembourg

    Article 13. No one may be deprived against his will of the judge that the law assigns to him. Article 86. A tribunal or a jurisdiction in contentious matters may only be established by virtue of a law. No extraordinary commissions or tribunals may be created under whatever denomination that may be. Article 88. The hearings of the tribunals are public, unless such publicity is a threat to order and morality, and in which case, the tribunal so declares by a judgment. Article 89. Every judgment is substantiated. It is pronounced in public hearing.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania
    Country:
    Lithuania

    Article 20(...) No one may be arbitrarily detained or held arrested. No one may be deprived of his freedom otherwise than on the grounds and according to the procedures which have been established by law.A person detained in flagrante delicto must, within 48 hours, be brought before a court for the purpose of deciding, in the presence of the detainee, on the validity of the detention. If the court does not adopt a decision to arrest the person, the detainee shall be released immediately.Article 29All persons shall be equal before the law, the court, and other State institutions and officials.Article 30The person whose constitutional rights or freedoms are violated shall have the right to apply to court.Compensation for material and moral damage inflicted upon a person shall be established by law.Article 31(...) A person charged with the commission of a crime shall have the right to a public and fair hearing of his case by an independent and impartial court.Article 20. No one may be arbitrarily apprehended or detained. No one may be deprived of his liberty otherwise than on the grounds and according to the procedures established by law. A person apprehended in flagrante delicto must, within 48 hours, be brought before a court for the purpose of deciding, in the presence of this person, on the validity of the apprehension. If the court does not adopt a decision to detain the person, the apprehended person shall be released immediately.
    Article 30. A person whose constitutional rights or freedoms are violated shall have the right to apply to a court. Compensation for material and moral damage inflicted upon a person shall be established by law.
    Article 31. A person charged with committing a crime shall have the right to a public and fair hearing of his case by an independent and impartial court. A person suspected of committing a crime, as well as the accused, shall be guaranteed, from the moment of his apprehension or first interrogation, the right to defence, as well as the right to an advocate.
    Article 109. In the Republic of Lithuania, justice shall be administered only by courts. When administering justice, judges and courts shall be independent. When considering cases, judges shall obey only the law. Courts shall adopt decisions in the name of the Republic of Lithuania.

  • Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija
    Country:
    Lithuania

    20 straipsnis. Niekas negali būti savavališkai sulaikytas arba laikomas suimtas. Niekam neturi būti atimta laisvė kitaip, kaip tokiais pagrindais ir pagal tokias procedūras, kokias yra nustatęs įstatymas. Nusikaltimo vietoje sulaikytas asmuo per 48 valandas turi būti pristatytas į teismą, kur sulaikytajam dalyvaujant sprendžiamas sulaikymo pagrįstumas. Jeigu teismas nepriima nutarimo asmenį suimti, sulaikytasis tuojau pat paleidžiamas.
    30 straipsnis. Asmuo, kurio konstitucinės teisės ar laisvės pažeidžiamos, turi teisę kreiptis į teismą. Asmeniui padarytos materialinės ir moralinės žalos atlyginimą nustato įstatymas.31 straipsnis Asmuo, kaltinamas padaręs nusikaltimą, turi teisę, kad jo bylą viešai ir teisingai išnagrinėtų nepriklausomas ir bešališkas teismas.
    109 straipsnis. Teisingumą Lietuvos Respublikoje vykdo tik teismai. Teisėjas ir teismai, vykdydami teisingumą, yra nepriklausomi. Teisėjai, nagrinėdami bylas, klauso tik įstatymo. Teismas priima sprendimus Lietuvos Respublikos vardu.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Latvia
    Country:
    Latvia

    92. Everyone has the right to defend his or her rights and lawful interests in a fair court. Everyone shall be presumed innocent until his or her guilt has been established in accordance with law. Everyone, where his or her rights are violated without basis, has a right to commensurate compensation. Everyone has a right to the assistance of counsel.

  • Latvijas Republikas Satversme
    Country:
    Latvia

    92. Ikviens var aizstāvēt savas tiesības un likumiskās intereses taisnīgā tiesā. Ikviens uzskatāms par nevainīgu, iekams viņa vaina nav atzīta saskaņā ar likumu. Nepamatota tiesību aizskāruma gadījumā ikvienam ir tiesības uz atbilstīgu atlīdzinājumu. Ikvienam ir tiesības uz advokāta palīdzību.

  • Constitution of the Italian Republic
    Country:
    Italy

    Art. 24. Anyone may bring cases before a court of law in order to protect their rights under civil and administrative law. Defense is an inviolable right at every stage and instance of legal proceedings. The poor are entitled by law to proper means for action or defense in all courts. The law shall define the conditions and forms of reparation in case of judicial errors. Art. 25. No case may be removed from the court seized with it as established by law. No punishment may be inflicted except by virtue of a law in force at the time tehe offence was committed. No restriction may be placed on a person's liberty save for as provided by law. Art. 101. Justice is administered in the name of the people. Judges are subject only to the law. Art. 104. The Judiciary is a branch that is autonomous and independent of all other powers. (...) Art. 111. Jurisdiction is implemented through due process regulated by law. All court trials are conducted with adversary proceedings and the parties. are entitled to equal conditions before an impartial judge in third party position. The law provides for the reasonable duration of trials. In criminal law trials, the law provides that the alleged offender shall be
    promptly informed confidentially of the nature and reasons for the charges that are brought and shall have adequate time and conditions to prepare a
    defence. The defendant shall have the right to cross-examine or to have cross-examined before a judge the persons making accusations and to
    summon and examine persons for the defence in the same conditions as the prosecution, as well as the right to produce all other evidence in favour of
    the defence. The defendant is entitled to the assistance of an interpreter in the case that he or she does not speak or understand the language in which
    the court proceedings are conducted. In criminal law proceedings, the formation of evidence is based on the principle of adversary hearings. The guilt of the defendant cannot be established on the basis of statements by persons who, out of their own free choice, have always voluntarily avoided undergoing cross-examination by
    the defendant or the defence counsel. The law regulates the cases in which the formation of evidence does not occur in an adversary proceeding with the consent of the defendant or owing to reasons of ascertained objective impossibility or proven illicit conduct. All judicial decisions shall include a statement of reasons. Appeals to the Court of Cassation in cases of violations of the law are always allowed against sentences and against measures affecting personal freedom pronounced by ordinary and special courts. This rule can only be waived in cases of sentences by military tribunals in time of war. Appeals to the Court of Cassation against decisions of the Council of State
    and the Court of Accounts are permitted only for reasons of jurisdiction. Art. 112. The public prosecutor has the obligation to institute criminal proceedings. Art. 113. The judicial safeguarding of rights and legitimate interests before the bodies of ordinary or administrative justice is always permitted against acts of the public administration. Such judicial protection may not be excluded or limited to particular kinds of appeal or for particular categories of acts. The law determines which judicial bodies are empowered to annul acts of public administration in the cases and with the consequences provided for by the law itself.

  • Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana
    Country:
    Italy

    Art. 24. Tutti possono agire in giudizio per la tutela dei propri diritti e interessi legittimi.La difesa è diritto inviolabile in ogni stato e grado del procedimento.Sono assicurati ai non abbienti, con appositi istituti, i mezzi per agire e difendersi davanti ad ogni giurisdizione.La legge determina le condizioni e i modi per la riparazione degli errori giudiziari. Art. 25. Nessuno può essere distolto dal giudice naturale precostituito per legge. Nessuno può essere punito se non in forza di una legge che sia entrata in vigore prima del fatto commesso. Nessuno può essere sottoposto a misure di sicurezza se non nei casi previsti dalla legge. Art. 101. La giustizia è amministrata in nome del popolo. I giudici sono soggetti soltanto alla legge. Art. 104. La magistratura costituisce un ordine autonomo e indipendente da ogni altro potere. (...) Art. 111. La giurisdizione si attua mediante il giusto processo regolato dalla legge. Ogni processo si svolge nel contraddittorio tra le parti, in condizioni di parità, davanti a giudice terzo e imparziale. La legge ne assicura la ragionevole durata. Nel processo penale, la legge assicura che la persona accusata di un reato sia, nel più breve tempo possibile, informata riservatamente della natura e dei motivi dell'accusa elevata a suo carico; disponga del tempo e delle condizioni necessari per preparare la sua difesa; abbia la facoltà, davanti al giudice, di interrogare o di far interrogare le persone che rendono dichiarazioni a suo carico, di ottenere la convocazione e l'interrogatorio di persone a sua difesa nelle stesse condizioni dell'accusa e l'acquisizione di ogni altro mezzo di prova a suo favore; sia assistita da un interprete se non comprende o non parla la lingua impiegata nel processo. Il processo penale è regolato dal principio del contraddittorio nella formazione della prova. La colpevolezza dell'imputato non può essere provata sulla base di dichiarazioni rese da chi, per libera scelta, si è sempre volontariamente sottratto all'interrogatorio da parte dell'imputato o del suo difensore. La legge regola i casi in cui la formazione della prova non ha luogo in contraddittorio per consenso dell'imputato o per accertata impossibilità di natura oggettiva o per effetto di provata condotta illecita. Tutti i provvedimenti giurisdizionali devono essere motivati. Contro le sentenze e contro i provvedimenti sulla libertà personale, pronunciati dagli organi giurisdizionali ordinari o speciali, è sempre ammesso ricorso in cassazione per violazione di legge. Si può derogare a tale norma soltanto per le sentenze dei tribunali militari in tempo di guerra.Contro le decisioni del Consiglio di Stato e della Corte dei conti il ricorso in cassazione è ammesso per i soli motivi inerenti alla giurisdizione. Art. 112. Il pubblico ministero ha l'obbligo di esercitare l'azione penale. Art. 113. Contro gli atti della pubblica amministrazione è sempre ammessa la tutela giurisdizionale dei diritti e degli interessi legittimi dinanzi agli organi di giurisdizione ordinaria o amministrativa.Tale tutela giurisdizionale non può essere esclusa o limitata a particolari mezzi di impugnazione o per determinate categorie di atti.La legge determina quali organi di giurisdizione possono annullare gli atti della pubblica amministrazione nei casi e con gli effetti previsti dalla legge stessa.

  • Constitution of Ireland
    Country:
    Ireland

    Article 34.1. Justice shall be administered in courts established by law by judges appointed in the manner provided by this Constitution, and, save in such special and limited cases as may be prescribed by law, shall be administered in public.Article 38.1No person shall be tried on any criminal charge save in due course of law.

  • A Magyar Köztársaság Alkotmánya
    Country:
    Hungary

    57 § (1) A Magyar Köztársaságban a bíróság előtt mindenki egyenlő, és mindenkinek joga van ahhoz, hogy az ellene emelt bármely vádat, vagy valamely perben a jogait és kötelességeit a törvény által felállított független és pártatlan bíróság igazságos és nyilvános tárgyaláson bírálja el.(…) (5) A Magyar Köztársaságban a törvényben meghatározottak szerint mindenki jogorvoslattal élhet az olyan bírósági, közigazgatási és más hatósági döntés ellen, amely a jogát vagy jogos érdekét sérti. A jogorvoslati jogot - a jogviták ésszerű időn belüli elbírálásának érdekében, azzal arányosan - a jelen lévő országgyűlési képviselők kétharmadának szavazatával elfogadott törvény korlátozhatja.70/K § Az alapvető jogok megsértése miatt keletkezett igények, továbbá a kötelességek teljesítésével kapcsolatban hozott állami döntések elleni kifogások bíróság előtt érvényesíthetők.

  • Constitution of the Republic of Hungary
    Country:
    Hungary

    Article 57(1) In the Republic of Hungary everyone is equal before the law and has the right to have the accusations brought against him, as well as his rights and duties in legal proceedings, judged in a just, public trial by an independent and impartial court established by law. (…) (5) In the Republic of Hungary everyone may seek legal remedy, in accordance with the provisions of the law, to judicial, administrative or other official decisions, which infringe on his rights or justified interests. A law passed by a majority of two-thirds of the votes of the Members of Parliament present may impose restrictions on the right to legal remedy in the interest of, and in proportion with, adjudication of legal disputes within a reasonable period of time.Article 70/KClaims arising from infringement on fundamental rights, and objections to the decisions of public authorities regarding the fulfilment of duties may be brought before a court of law.

  • Magyarország Alaptörvénye
    Country:
    Hungary

    XXVIII. cikk (SZABADSÁG ÉS FELELŐSSÉG) (1) Mindenkinek joga van ahhoz, hogy az ellene emelt bármely vádat vagy valamely perben a jogait és kötelezettségeit törvény által felállított, független és pártatlan bíróság tisztességes és nyilvános tárgyaláson, ésszerű határidőn belül bírálja el.
    […]
    (3) A büntetőeljárás alá vont személynek az eljárás minden szakaszában joga van a védelemhez. A védő nem vonható felelősségre a védelem ellátása során kifejtett véleménye miatt.
    […]
    (7) Mindenkinek joga van ahhoz, hogy jogorvoslattal éljen az olyan bírósági, hatósági és más közigazgatási döntés ellen, amely a jogát vagy jogos érdekét sérti.

  • The Fundamental Law of Hungary
    Country:
    Hungary

    Article XXVIII (Freedom and Responsibility) (1) Everyone shall have the right to have any charge against him or her, or his or her rights and obligations in any litigation, adjudicated within a reasonable time in a fair and public trial by an independent and impartial court established by an Act. […]
    (3) Persons subject to criminal proceedings shall have the right to defence at all stages of the procedure. Defence counsels shall not be held liable for their opinion expressed while providing legal defence. […]
    (7) Everyone shall have the right to seek legal remedy against any court, authority or other administrative decision which violates his or her rights or legitimate interests.

  • Constitution of the Hellenic Republic
    Country:
    Greece

    Article 8 No person shall be deprived of the judge assigned to him by law against his will. Judicial committees or extraordinary courts, under any name whatsoever, shall not be constituted. [...] .Article 20 (1) Every person shall be entitled to receive legal protection by the courts and may plead before them his views concerning his rights or interests, as specified by law. (2). The right of a person to a prior hearing also applies in any administrative action or measure adopted at the expense of his rights or interests. [...] .Article 87 (1). Justice shall be administered by courts composed of regular judges who shall enjoy functional and personal independence. (2). In the discharge of their duties, judges shall be subject only to the Constitution and the laws; in no case whatsoever shall they be obliged to comply with provisions enacted in violation of the Constitution. (3). Regular judges shall be inspected by judges of a superior rank, as well as by the Public Prosecutor and the Deputy Prosecutor of the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court; Public Prosecutors shall be inspected by the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court judges and Public Prosecutors of a superior rank, as specified by law [...] Article 97 (1). Felonies and political crimes shall be tried by mixed jury courts composed of ordinary judges and jurors, as specified by law. The judgments of these courts shall be subject to the legal remedies specified by law. (2). Felonies and political crimes which prior to the date of entry into force of this Constitution have, by constituent acts, parliamentary resolutions and special statutes, come under the jurisdiction of courts of appeal shall continue to be tried by the said courts, as long as a statute does not transfer them to the jurisdiction of mixed jury courts. Other felonies may be transferred to the jurisdiction of the same courts of appeal by statute. (3). Crimes of any degree committed through the press shall be under the jurisdiction of ordinary criminal courts, as specified by law. [...]

  • Το Σύνταγμα της Ελλάδας
    Country:
    Greece

    Άρθρο 8 Κανένας δεν στερείται χωρίς τη θέλησή του το δικαστή που του έχει ορίσει ο νόμος. Δικαστικές επιτροπές και έκτακτα δικαστήρια, με οποιοδήποτε όνομα, δεν επιτρέπεται να συσταθούν.[...] Άρθρο 20 (1).Καθένας έχει δικαίωμα στην παροχή έννομης προστασίας από τα δικαστήρια και μπορεί να αναπτύξει σ' αυτά τις απόψεις του για τα δικαιώματα ή συμφέροντά του, όπως νόμος ορίζει. (2).Το δικαίωμα της προηγούμενης ακρόασης του ενδιαφερομένου ισχύει και για κάθε διοικητική ενέργεια ή μέτρο που λαμβάνεται σε βάρος των δικαιωμάτων ή συμφερόντων του [...].Άρθρο 87 (1).Η δικαιοσύνη απονέμεται από δικαστήρια συγκροτούμενα από τακτικούς δικαστές, που απολαμβάνουν λειτουργική προσωπική ανεξαρτησία.(2).Οι δικαστές κατά την άσκηση των καθηκόντων τους υπόκεινται μόνο στο Σύνταγμα και στους νόμους και σε καμία περίπτωση δεν υποχρεούνται να συμμορφώνονται με διατάξεις που έχουν τεθεί κατά κατάλυση του Συντάγματος.(3).Η επιθεώρηση των τακτικών δικαστών ενεργείται από δικαστές ανώτερου βαθμού καθώς και από τον Εισαγγελέα, τους Αντεισαγγελείς του Αρείου Πάγου, των δε εισαγγελέων από αρεοπαγίτες και εισαγγελείς ανώτερου βαθμού, σύμφωνα με τους ορισμούς του νόμου. [...] Άρθρο 97(1).Τα κακουργήματα και τα πολιτικά εγκλήματα δικάζονται από μικτά ορκωτά δικαστήρια που συγκροτούνται από τακτικούς δικαστές και ενόρκους, όπως νόμος ορίζει. Οι αποφάσεις των δικαστηρίων αυτών υπόκεινται στα ένδικα μέσα που ορίζει ο νόμος.(2).Κακουργήματα και πολιτικά εγκλήματα, που με συντακτικές πράξεις, ψηφίσματα και ειδικούς νόμους έχουν υπαχθεί έως την ισχύ του Συντάγματος στη δικαιοδοσία των εφετείων, εξακολουθούν να δικάζονται από αυτά, εφόσον δεν υπαχθούν με νόμο στην αρμοδιότητα των μικτών ορκωτών δικαστηρίων. Με νόμο μπορεί να υπαχθούν στη δικαιοδοσία των ίδιων εφετείων και άλλα κακουργήματα.(3).Τα εγκλήματα κάθε βαθμού που διαπράττονται δια του Τύπου υπάγονται στα τακτικά ποινικά δικαστήρια, όπως νόμος ορίζει. [...]

  • Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
    Country:
    Germany

    Article 19 (...) (4) Should any person’s rights be violated by public authority, he may have recourse to the courts. If no other jurisdiction has been established, recourse shall be to the ordinary courts. The second sentence of paragraph (2) of Article 10 shall not be affected by this paragraph. Article 97 (1) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law. (...) Article 101 (1) Extraordinary courts shall not be allowed. No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of his lawful judge. (2) Courts for particular fields of law may be established only by a law. Article 103 (1) In the courts every person shall be entitled to a hearing in accordance with law. (2) An act may be punished only if it was defined by a law as a criminal offence before the act was committed. (3) No person may be punished for the same act more than once under the general criminal laws.

  • Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland
    Country:
    Germany

    Artikel 19 (...) (4) Wird jemand durch die öffentliche Gewalt in seinen Rechten verletzt, so steht ihm der Rechtsweg offen. Soweit eine andere Zuständigkeit nicht begründet ist, ist der ordentliche Rechtsweg gegeben. Artikel 10 Abs. 2 Satz 2 bleibt unberührt. Artikel 97 (1) Die Richter sind unabhängig und nur dem Gesetze unterworfen. (...) Artikel 101 (1) Ausnahmegerichte sind unzulässig. Niemand darf seinem gesetzlichen Richter entzogen werden. (2) Gerichte für besondere Sachgebiete können nur durch Gesetz errichtet werden. Artikel 103 (1) Vor Gericht hat jedermann Anspruch auf rechtliches Gehör. (...)

  • Constitution
    Country:
    France

    Article 64 The President of the Republic shall be the guarantor of the independence of the
    Judicial Authority (...)

  • Constitution
    Country:
    France

    Article 64 Le Président de la République est garant de l'indépendance de l'autorité judiciaire.(...) 

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