Άρθρο 48 - Τεκμήριο αθωότητας και δικαιώματα της υπεράσπισης
1. Κάθε κατηγορούμενος τεκμαίρεται ότι είναι αθώος μέχρι αποδείξεως της ενοχής του σύμφωνα με τον νόμο. 2. Διασφαλίζεται ο σεβασμός των δικαιωμάτων της υπεράσπισης σε κάθε κατηγορούμενο.
Το άρθρο 48 είναι το ίδιο με το άρθρο 6, παράγραφοι 2 και 3, της ΕΣΑΔ, που έχει ως εξής:
`2. Παν πρόσωπον κατηγορούμενον επί αδικήματι τεκμαίρεται ότι είναι αθώον μέχρι της νομίμου αποδείξεως της ενοχής του. 3. Ειδικότερον, πας κατηγορούμενος έχει δικαίωμα: α) όπως πληροφορηθή, εν τη βραχυτέρα προθεσμία εις γλώσσαν την οποίαν εννοεί και εν λεπτομερεία την φύσιν και τον λόγον της εναντίον του κατηγορίας, β) όπως διαθέτη τον χρόνον και τας αναγκαίας ευκολίας προς προετοιμασίαν της υπεραπίσεώς του, γ) όπως υπερασπίση ο ίδιος εαυτόν ή αναθέση την υπεράσπισίν του εις συνήγορον της εκλογής του, εν ή δε περιπτώσει δεν διαθέτει τα μέσα να πληρώσει συνήγορον να τω παρασχεθή τοιούτος δωρεάν, όταν τούτο ενδείκνυται υπό του συμφέροντος της δικαιοσύνης, δ) να εξετάση ή ζητήση όπως εξετασθώσιν οι μάρτυρες κατηγορίας και επιτύχη την πρόσκλησιν και εξέτασιν των μαρτύρων υπερασπίσεως υπό τους αυτούς όρους ως των μαρτύρων κατηγορίας, ε) να τύχη δωρεάν παραστάσεως διερμηνέως, εάν δεν εννοή ή δεν ομιλή την χρησιμοποιουμένην εις το δικαστήριον γλώσσαν.` Σύμφωνα με το άρθρο 52, παράγραφος 3, το δικαίωμα αυτό έχει την ίδια έννοια και την ίδια εμβέλεια με το δικαίωμα που κατοχυρώνεται στην ΕΣΑΔ.
Artikel 17 Niemand kan tegen zijn wil worden afgehouden van de rechter die de wet hem toekent.Artikel 181. Ieder kan zich in rechte en in administratief beroep doen bijstaan.
Article 37 (1) Everyone has the right to refuse to give testimony if she would thereby incriminate herself or a person close to her. (2) In proceedings before courts, other State bodies, or public administrative authorities, everyone shall have the right to legal assistance from the very beginning of such proceedings. (3) All parties to such proceedings are equal. (4) Anyone who declares that she does not speak the language in which a proceeding is being conducted has the right to the services of an interpreter. Article 40 (1) Only a court may decide on guilt and on the punishment for criminal offences. (2) A person against whom a criminal proceeding has been brought shall be considered innocent until her guilt is declared in a court’s final judgment of conviction. (3) The accused has the right to be given the time and opportunity to prepare a defense and to be able to defend herself, either pro se or with the assistance of counsel. If she fails to choose counsel even though the law requires her to have one, she shall be appointed counsel by the court. The law shall set down the cases in which the accused is entitled to counsel free of charge. (4) The accused has the right to refuse to give testimony; she may not be deprived of this right in any manner whatsoever.
Článek 37 (1) Každý má právo odepřít výpověď, jestliže by jí způsobil nebezpečí trestního stíhání sobě nebo osobě blízké. (2) Každý má právo na právní pomoc v řízení před soudy, jinými státními orgány či orgány veřejné správy, a to od počátku řízení. (3) Všichni účastníci jsou si v řízení rovni. (4) Kdo prohlásí, že neovládá jazyk, jímž se vede jednání, má právo na tlumočníka. Článek 40 (1) Jen soud rozhoduje o vině a trestu za trestné činy. (2) Každý, proti němuž je vedeno trestní řízení, je považován za nevinného, pokud pravomocným odsuzujícím rozsudkem soudu nebyla jeho vina vyslovena. (3) Obviněný má právo, aby mu byl poskytnut čas a možnost k přípravě obhajoby a aby se mohl hájit sám nebo prostřednictvím obhájce. Jestliže si obhájce nezvolí, ačkoliv ho podle zákona mít musí, bude mu ustanoven soudem. Zákon stanoví, v kterých případech má obviněný právo na bezplatnou pomoc obhájce. (4) Obviněný má právo odepřít výpověď; tohoto práva nesmí být žádným způsobem zbaven.
See ECHR provisions of Article 6 which have been incorporated into UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998.. Schdule 1, Article 6 Right to a fair trial
1 In the determination of his civil rights and obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be excluded from all or part of the trial in the interest of morals, public order or national security in a democratic society, where the interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would prejudice the interests of justice.
2 Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
3 Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the following minimum rights:
(a)to be informed promptly, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the accusation against him;
(b)to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;
(c)to defend himself in person or through legal assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the interests of justice so require;
(d)to examine or have examined witnesses against him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
(e)to have the free assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.
Artículo 24 2. Asimismo, todos tienen derecho al Juez ordinario predeterminado por la ley, a la defensa y a la asistencia de letrado, a ser informados de la acusación formulada contra ellos, a un proceso público sin dilaciones indebidas y con todas las garantías, a utilizar los medios de prueba pertinentes para su defensa, a no declarar contra sí mismos, a no confesarse culpables y a la presunción de inocencia. La ley regulará los casos en que, por razón de parentesco o de secreto profesional, no se estará obligado a declarar sobre hechos presuntamente delictivos.
Section 24 2. Likewise, all have the right to the ordinary judge predetermined by law; to defense and assistance by a lawyer; to be informed of the charges brought against them; to a public trial without undue delays and with full guarantees; to the use of evidence appropriate to their defense; not to make self-incriminating statements; not to plead themselves guilty; and to be presumed innocent.
Article 27 - Presumption of Innocence Any person charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed innocent until found guilty in a final judgement.
Article 29 - Legal Guarantees in Criminal Proceedings Anyone charged with a criminal offence must, in addition to absolute equality, be guaranteed the following rights:- the right to have adequate time and facilities to prepare his defence;- the right to be present at his trial and to conduct his own defence or to be defended by a legal representative;- the right to present all evidence to his benefit;- the right not to incriminate himself or his relatives or those close to him, or to admit guilt.
27. člen - domneva nedolžnostiKdor je obdolžen kaznivega ravnanja, velja za nedolžnega, dokler njegova krivda ni ugotovljena s pravnomočno sodbo.
29. člen - pravna jamstva v kazenskem postopkuVsakomur, ki je obdolžen kaznivega dejanja, morajo biti ob popolni enakopravnosti zagotovljene tudi naslednje pravice: - da ima primeren čas in možnosti za pripravo svoje obrambe; - da se mu sodi v njegovi navzočnosti in da se brani sam ali z zagovornikom;- da mu je zagotovljeno izvajanje dokazov v njegovo korist; - da ni dolžan izpovedati zoper sebe ali svoje bližnje, ali priznati krivde.
Article 50 (1) Only the court decides on guilt and punishment for criminal acts. (2) Everyone against whom a criminal proceeding is conducted is considered innocent until the court establishes his guilt by a legally valid verdict. (3) The accused has the right to be granted the time and opportunity to prepare his defense, and to defend himself either alone or through a defense counsel.(4) The accused has the right to refuse to testify; this right may not be denied in any way. (...)
Čl. 50 (...) (2) Každý, proti komu sa vedie trestné konanie, považuje sa za nevinného, kým súd nevysloví právoplatným odsudzujúcim rozsudkom jeho vinu.(3) Obvinený má právo, aby mu bol poskytnutý čas a možnosť na prípravu obhajoby a aby sa mohol obhajovať sám alebo prostredníctvom obhajcu.(4) Obvinený má právo odoprieť výpoveď; tohto práva ho nemožno pozbaviť nijakým spôsobom. (...)
Articolul 23(11) Pâna la ramânerea definitiva a hotarârii judecatoresti de condamnare, persoana este considerata nevinovata.Articolul 24(1) Dreptul la aparare este garantat.(2) În tot cursul procesului, partile au dreptul sa fie asistate de un avocat, ales sau numit din oficiu.
Article 23(11) Any person shall be presumed innocent till found guilty by a final decision of the court. Article 24(1) The right to defence is guaranteed. (2) All throughout the trial, the parties shall have the right to be assisted by a lawyer of their own choosing or appointed ex officio.
Artigo 20.º (Acesso ao direito e tutela jurisdicional efectiva) 2. Todos têm direito, nos termos da lei, à informação e consulta jurídicas, ao patrocínio judiciário e a fazer-se acompanhar por advogado perante qualquer autoridade. Artigo 31.º (Habeas corpus) 1. Haverá habeas corpus contra o abuso de poder, por virtude de prisão ou detenção ilegal, a requerer perante o tribunal competente. 2. A providência de habeas corpus pode ser requerida pelo próprio ou por qualquer cidadão no gozo dos seus direitos políticos. 3. O juiz decidirá no prazo de oito dias o pedido de habeas corpus em audiência contraditória. Artigo 32.º (Garantias do processo criminal) 1. O processo criminal assegura todas as garantias de defesa, incluindo o recurso. 2. Todo o arguido se presume inocente até ao trânsito em julgado da sentença de condenação, devendo ser julgado no mais curto prazo compatível com as garantias de defesa. 3. O arguido tem direito a escolher defensor e a ser por ele assistido em todos os actos do processo, especificando a lei os casos e as fases em que a assistência por advogado é obrigatória. 10. Nos processos de contra-ordenação, bem como em quaisquer processos sancionatórios, são assegurados ao arguido os direitos de audiência e defesa.
Article 20 (Access to law and effective judicial protection) (2) Everyone has the right, in accordance with the law, to legal advice and information, as well as to legal aid, and the right to be assisted by a lawyer before any authority. Article 31 (Habeas corpus) (1) Habeas corpus shall be available to counter the misuse of power in the form of illegal arrest, imprisonment or detention. Application for it shall be made to the competent court. (2) Application for a habeas corpus order may be made by the person so arrested, imprisoned or detained, or by any citizen exercising his political rights. (3) Within eight days of an application for habeas corpus the judge shall rule thereon in a hearing that shall be subject to pleading and counter-pleading. Article 32 (Safeguards in criminal procedures) 1. Criminal proceedings shall ensure all necessary safeguards for the defence, including the right to appeal. (2) Every defendant shall be presumed innocent until his sentence has transited in rem judicatam, and shall be brought to trial as quickly as is compatible with the safeguards of the defence. (3) Defendants shall possess the right to choose counsel and to be assisted by him in relation to every procedural act. The law shall specify those cases and phases of proceedings in which the assistance of a lawyer shall be mandatory. (10) Defendants in proceedings concerning administrative offences or in any proceedings in which penalties may be imposed shall possess the right to be heard and to a defence.
Article 42(...) 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself - in accordance with principles specified by statute - of counsel appointed by the court. 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court. Article 78Each party shall have the right to appeal against judgments and decisions made at first stage. Exceptions to this principle and the procedure for such appeals shall be specified by statute.Article 791. In accordance with principles specified by statute, everyone whose constitutional freedoms or rights have been infringed, shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Tribunal for its judgment on the conformity to the Constitution of a statute or another normative act upon which basis a court or organ of public administration has made a final decision on his freedoms or rights or on his obligations specified in the Constitution. (...)
Article 42(...) 2. Anyone against whom criminal proceedings have been brought shall have the right to defence at all stages of such proceedings. He may, in particular, choose counsel or avail himself - in accordance with principles specified by statute - of counsel appointed by the court. 3. Everyone shall be presumed innocent of a charge until his guilt is determined by the final judgment of a court. Article 78Each party shall have the right to appeal against judgments and decisions made at first stage. Exceptions to this principle and the procedure for such appeals shall be specified by statute.Article 79.1. In accordance with principles specified by statute, everyone whose constitutional freedoms or rights have been infringed, shall have the right to appeal to the Constitutional Tribunal for its judgment on the conformity to the Constitution of a statute or another normative act upon which basis a court or organ of public administration has made a final decision on his freedoms or rights or on his obligations specified in the Constitution. (...)
Art. 42(...) 2. Każdy, przeciw komu prowadzone jest postępowanie karne, ma prawo do obrony we wszystkich stadiach postępowania. Może on w szczególności wybrać obrońcę lub na zasadach określonych w ustawie korzystać z obrońcy z urzędu.3. Każdego uważa się za niewinnego, dopóki jego wina nie zostanie stwierdzona prawomocnym wyrokiem sądu. Art. 78Każda ze stron ma prawo do zaskarżenia orzeczeń i decyzji wydanych w pierwszej instancji. Wyjątki od tej zasady oraz tryb zaskarżania określa ustawa.Art. 791. Każdy, czyje konstytucyjne wolności lub prawa zostały naruszone, ma prawo, na zasadach określonych w ustawie, wnieść skargę do Trybunału Konstytucyjnego w sprawie zgodności z Konstytucją ustawy lub innego aktu normatywnego, na podstawie którego sąd lub organ administracji publicznej orzekł ostatecznie o jego wolnościach lub prawach albo o jego obowiązkach określonych w Konstytucji. (...)
Article 14. Nulle peine ne peut être établie ni appliquée qu’en vertu de la loi.
Article 39(…) (5) Every person who is charged with a criminal offence shall be presumed to be innocent until he is proved or has pleaded guilty:Provided that nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this subsection to the extent that the law in question imposes upon any person charged as aforesaid the burden of proving particular facts.(6) Every person who is charged with a criminal offence:(a) shall be informed in writing, in a language which he understands and in detail, of the nature of the offence charged;(b) shall be given adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defence;(c) shall be permitted to defend himself in person or by a legal representative and a person who cannot afford to pay for such legal representation as is reasonably required by the circumstances of his ease shall be entitled to have such representation at the public expense;(d) shall be afforded facilities to examine in person or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the prosecution before any court and to obtain the attendance of witnesses subject to the payment of their reasonable expenses, and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify on his behalf before the court on the same conditions as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution; and(e) shall be permitted to have without payment the assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the language used at the trial of the charge, and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place in his absence unless he so conducts himself as to render the continuance of the proceedings in his presence impracticable and the court has ordered him to be removed and the trial to proceed in his absence. (…)
Article 14. No penalty may be established or applied except by virtue of the law.
(13) This Directive acknowledges the different needs and levels of protection of certain aspects of the presumption of innocence as regards natural and legal persons. As regards natural persons, such protection is reflected in wellestablished
case-law of the European Court of Human Rights. The Court of Justice has, however, recognised that the rights flowing from the presumption of innocence do not accrue to legal persons in the same way as they do to natural persons.
(14) At the current stage of development of national law and of case-law at national and Union level, it is premature to legislate at Union level on the presumption of innocence with regard to legal persons. This Directive should not, therefore, apply to legal persons. This should be without prejudice to the application of the presumption of innocence as laid down, in particular, in the ECHR and as interpreted by the European Court of Human Rights and by the Court of Justice, to legal persons.
(15) The presumption of innocence with regard to legal persons should be ensured by the existing legislative safeguards and case-law, the evolution of which is to determine whether there is a need for Union action.
(16) The presumption of innocence would be violated if public statements made by public authorities, or judicial decisions other than those on guilt, referred to a suspect or an accused person as being guilty, for as long as that person has not been proved guilty according to law. Such statements and judicial decisions should not reflect an opinion that that person is guilty. This should be without prejudice to acts of the prosecution which aim to prove the guilt of the suspect or accused person, such as the indictment, and without prejudice to judicial decisions as a result of which a suspended sentence takes effect, provided that the rights of the defence are
respected. This should also be without prejudice to preliminary decisions of a procedural nature, which are taken by judicial or other competent authorities and are based on suspicion or on elements of incriminating evidence, such as decisions on pre-trial detention, provided that such decisions do not refer to the suspect or accused person as being guilty. Before taking a preliminary decision of a procedural nature the competent authority might first have to verify that there are sufficient elements of incriminating evidence against the suspect or accused person to justify the decision concerned, and the decision could contain reference to those elements.
(46) In order to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of this Directive, Member States should send available data with regard to the implementation of the rights laid down in this Directive to the Commission. Such data could include records made by law enforcement and judicial authorities as regards remedies applied in the case of a
breach of any of the aspects of the presumption of innocence covered by this Directive or of the right to be present at the trial.
(47) This Directive upholds the fundamental rights and principles recognised by the Charter and by the ECHR, including the prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment, the right to liberty and security, respect for private and family life, the right to the integrity of the person, the rights of the child, the integration
of persons with disabilities, the right to an effective remedy and the right to a fair trial, the presumption of innocence and the rights of the defence. Regard should be had, in particular, to Article 6 of the Treaty on European Union (TEU), according to which the Union recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out in the Charter, and according to which fundamental rights, as guaranteed by the ECHR and as they result from the constitutional traditions common to the Member States, are to constitute general principles of Union law.
(48) As this Directive establishes minimum rules, Member States should be able to extend the rights laid down in this Directive in order to provide a higher level of protection. The level of protection provided for by Member States should never fall below the standards provided for by the Charter or by the ECHR, as interpreted by the Court of Justice and by the European Court of Human Rights.
(49) Since the objectives of this Directive, namely setting common minimum rules for certain aspects of the presumption of innocence and for the right to be present at the trial in criminal proceedings, cannot be sufficiently achieved by the Member States but can rather, by reason of its scale and effects, be better achieved at Union level, the Union may adopt measures in accordance with the principle of subsidiarity as set out in Article 5 TEU. In accordance with the principle of proportionality, as set out in that Article, this Directive does not go beyond what is necessary in order to achieve those objectives.
Article 1. Subject matter:
This directive lays down common minimum rules concerning:
- certain aspects of the presumption of innocence in criminal proceedings;
- the right to be present at the trial in criminal proceedings.
Article 3. Presumption of innocence:
Member States shall ensure that suspects and accused persons are presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
‘(31) Member States should be able to derogate temporarily from the obligation to provide assistance by a lawyer in the pre-trial phase for compelling reasons, namely where there is an urgent need to avert serious adverse consequences for the life, liberty or physical integrity of a person, or where immediate action by the investigating authorities is imperative to prevent substantial jeopardy to criminal proceedings in relation to a serious criminal offence, inter alia, with a view to obtaining information concerning the alleged co-perpetrators of a serious criminal offence, or in order to avoid the loss of important evidence regarding a serious criminal offence. During a temporary derogation for one of those compelling reasons, the competent authorities should be able to question children without the lawyer being present, provided that they have been informed of their right to remain silent and can exercise that right, and that such questioning does not prejudice the rights of the defence, including the right not to incriminate oneself. It should be possible to carry out questioning, to the extent necessary, for the sole purpose of obtaining information that is essential to avert serious adverse consequences for the life, liberty or physical integrity of a person, or to prevent substantial jeopardy to criminal proceedings. Any abuse of this temporary derogation would, in principle, irretrievably prejudice the rights of the defence.‘
‘(33) Confidentiality of communication between children and their lawyer is key to ensuring the effective exercise of the rights of the defence and is an essential part of the right to a fair trial. Member States should therefore respect the confidentiality of meetings and other forms of communication between the lawyer and the child in the context of the assistance by a lawyer provided for in this Directive, without derogation. [...]
Article 6 - Assistance by a lawyer
‘2. Member States shall ensure that children are assisted by a lawyer in accordance with this Article in order to allow them to exercise the rights of the defence effectively.‘
Article 9. Procedural guarantees:
1. In its investigations the Office shall seek evidence for and
against the person concerned. Investigations shall be conducted
objectively and impartially and in accordance with the principle
of the presumption of innocence and with the procedural guarantees
set out in this Article.