United Kingdom United Kingdom


Elahi, F. and Khan, O., Islamophobia: Still a challenge for us all, A 20th-anniversary Report, Runnymede: Intelligence for a Multi-ethnic Britain

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Civil society organisation



Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime

Target Population


Key findings

The authors draw on impacts of anti-Muslim hate crime: at both individual and community levels. With respect to individual impact, they find that crimes against Muslims "hurt" more as they are seen as an attack upon the victims’ Muslim identity. A key finding is that anti-Muslim hate crime is rarely a one-time event for the victims. Rather, they are "multiple and repeat victims of both cyber- and physical world forms". Also, participants described living in fear because of the possibility of
online threats materializing in the ‘real world’. Many stop leaving the house and endure long-lasting effects such as panic attacks, anxiety, depression.

Regarding the impact on the communities, "anti-Muslim hate crime isolates and excludes Muslims, thereby creating fear, resentment and mistrust of the ‘Muslim Other". Thus, it promotes a situation in which Muslims and non-Muslims live in fear of each other.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Desk Research

Sample details and representativeness

N/A - not applicable

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