Slovenia Slovenia


Pucelj, M.; Šabec, K. (2017), 'Hate Speech Against Refugees and Migrants, Muslims and Covered Muslim Women in Slovenia' (Sovražni govor proti beguncem in migrantom, muslimanom in zakritim muslimanskim ženskam), Journal for the Critique of Science, Imagination, and New Anthropology (Časopis za kritiko znanosti, domišljijo in novo antropologijo, ČKZ), Vol. XLV, No. 268, p. 122-142.

View full Research



Type of publication

Survey - quantitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution



Journal for the Critique of Science, Imagination, and New Anthropology | Časopis za kritiko znanosti, domišljijo in novo antropologijo | ČKZ

Main Thematic Focus

Hate speech Racism & xenophobia

Target Population

Migrants Refugees & Asylum seekers Muslims

Key findings

The article focuses on hate speech against refugees and migrants from the Middle East and North Africa that had come to the West during the migration crisis in 2015 and 2016, as well as on the hate speech aimed towards Muslims and covered Muslim women in Slovenia. The results of the web survey show that hate speech towards the aforementioned social groups exists and is on the rise due to refugees and migrants coming from the Middle East and Northern Africa. The interviews show that hate speech towards covered Muslim women exists as well, and is also on the rise. The interviewees perceive it mostly indirectly (via communication channels like mass media, social networks and disrespectful comments on the street), and only rarely directly (via verbal abuse in person or physical abuse).

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The article is based on a web survey conducted between June and July 2016 in Slovenia, and 13 semi-structured interviews with covered Muslim women in Slovenia. Web survey was conducted online on the platform Analysis was completed by SPSS Statistics 23 for Windows. The statistical analysis included univariate and bivariate analysis. Details on semi-structured interviews are not explained.

Sample details and representativeness

Web survey: 658 respondents participated in the web survey, i.e. 89 percent of women and 11 percent of men; average age 32,3 years; 32,6 percent from central Slovenia; 47,9 percent Catholics, 34,6 percent of atheists and 10,2 percent of Muslims. Interviews were conducted between August and November 2016 either by phone, e-mail or in person. All interviewees were born in Muslim communities, 9 were born in Slovenia, 2 in Bosnia and Herzegovina and 1 in Yemen. The youngest was 22 years old and the oldest was 37 years old.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.