Sweden Sweden


Axell S, Westerberg S, (2016), Hate crime 2015 `Statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives and self-reported exposure to hate crime` (Hatbrott 2015 Statistik över polisanmälningar med identifierade hatbrottsmotiv och självrapporterad utsatthet för hatbrott), Stockholm, Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet, BRÅ)

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Public authority


Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention | Brottsförebyggande rådet | BRÅ

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Refugees & Asylum seekers People of African descent and Black Europeans

Key findings

The report shows that the reported hate crimes have increased with 11 percent since the year before. 68 percent of the police reports had xenophobic/racist motives and 8 percent Islamophobic motives. The workplace was the most common location for crimes with Afrophobic motives. Public places and the internet are the crime locations for most crimes with anti-Roma motives, while public transportations were the most common location for crimes with Islamophobic motives. Hate crimes with anti-Semitic motives were mostly committed over the phone. The data on self-reported victimisation of hate crime shows that 1.4 % of the population, aged 16–79 had been victims of hate crimes. 0.5 % of the population were victims anti-religious hate crimes. Both sexes were equally affected.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Quantitative statistics primarily based on police reports with identified hate crime motives. The method for finding police reports with identified hate crimes is a search in the case files as well as manual reviews of notifications of the selected crime categories. In addition, the yearly reports also include surveys on self-reported victimisation of hate crimes. The data on self-reported victimisation of hate crimes is collected through a) the National Crime Survey (Nationella trygghetsundersökningen), a questionnaire-based quantitative survey with structured interviews with random address-sampled persons from the general population between 16 – 79 years; b) the Politicians' Safety Survey (Politikernas trygghetsundersökning), an online-questionnaire answered by elected representatives; and b) the School Survey on Crimes (Skolundersökningen om brott), a questionnaire-based quantitative survey answered by 15 – 16 years pupils attending level 9 in the compulsory school. All data collection is conducted annually by the National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet, BRÅ). However, the report published in 2016 does not include the School Survey on Crime

Sample details and representativeness

The sample of the Police reports identifying hate crimes consists of a random sample of the population with a sample size of 50 % of the population. A computerised search is applied to the sample and the identified reports are then studied manually.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.