Sweden Sweden


Sweden, Mellgren, C. and Andersson, M. (2016) Exposure and experiences of hate crimes (Utsatthet och upplevelser av hatbrott) Malmö University (Malmö Högskola), 2016

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Type of publication

Survey - quantitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - regional level

Type of Institution



Malmö University | Malmö Högskola

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime

Target Population

General population

Key findings

The research shows that 20 percent of 2853 students have experienced hate crime based on their ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexuality, disability, gender and/or gender identity. 19 percent of the students with non-European origin have been victims of hate crimes on the grounds of their origin, as compared to 4 percent of the students with European origin. This shows how so-called visible minorities are more exposed to hate crimes than other ethnic minorities. Hate crimes on the grounds of religious beliefs were most common among Muslims. 15 percent of the respondents that identified themselves as Muslims have been victims of hate crime
The research also shows that victims of hate crime report this to the Police to a significantly lower extent than other crime victims.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Questionnaire-based quantitative survey of the student population at Malmö University, between 2013 – 2014. Students were selected with the use of two criteria: they should be full-time students on courses with a minimum length of 10 weeks and these courses should not be implemented as distance learning. In total, 4649 students were reached by the survey; of these, 2853 answered the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 61%. In addition, qualitative research was conducted through interviews with students at Malmö University that have had experienced hate crime.

Sample details and representativeness

Of a student population of 4649 students, 2853 responded to the survey. Of them 21 % was born abroad; 21 % was born in Sweden, with at least one parent born abroad; 58 % was born in Sweden with both parents born in Sweden; 68 % identified as women; 29 % identified as men; 4 % identified as trans. The respondents were between 18 – 55 years, with the majority was between 21 -26 years. The distribution in respect to country of birth (födelseland), age and gender reflects the general student population, both nationally and at Malmö University. 34 interviews where conducted with respondents who after answering the survey had expressed an interest in participating in an interview about their experience of being victims of hate crimes.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.