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European Network Against Racism (ENAR) (2019), Racist crime & institutional racism in Europe: ENAR Shadow Report 2014-2018, Brussels

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - regional level

Type of Institution

Civil society organisation


European Network Against Racism (ENAR)

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime Incitement to hatred or violence Racism & xenophobia

Target Population

Muslims Religious minorities Migrants People with migrant background Ethnic minorities

Key findings

The report provides data on racist crime in Europe between 2014 and 2018, and documents institutional practice during the recording, investigation and prosecution of hate crimes with a racial bias. The findings suggest that racially motivated crimes are on the rise in many EU Member States. Police mishandling, abuse and violence are determining factors in why victims do not report racist crimes. The lack of institutional response and negative experiences of victims with the police mean that civil society organisations have to fill in the gap to ensure racially motivated crimes are properly recorded.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The findings are based on qualitative and quantitative research performed by ENAR member organisations in 24 EU Member States: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain and the United Kingdom.

Sample details and representativeness


DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.