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European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012), Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims' rights, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities People of African descent & Black Europeans Religious minorities People with migrant background LGBTI

Key findings

The report identified a great degree of variation in how the 27 EU Member States deal with
hate crime. This variation reflects how such criminality is approached, which has a direct effect on how law
enforcement agencies and criminal justice systems handle it. Narrow legal definitions of what constitutes
hate crime, for instance, tend to lead to under-recording of incidents, which translates into low numbers of
prosecutions, thereby affording victims of crime fewer
opportunities to seek redress.
The report has also shown that there are many challenges inherent to recording data on hate crime.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Desk research

Sample details and representativeness


DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.