European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012), Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims' rights, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.
Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czechia Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Hungary Ireland Italy Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovakia United Kingdom
Type of publication
Area/location of interest
Type of Institution
Main Thematic Focus
Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities People of African descent & Black Europeans Religious minorities People with migrant background LGBTI
The report identified a great degree of variation in how the 27 EU Member States deal with
hate crime. This variation reflects how such criminality is approached, which has a direct effect on how law
enforcement agencies and criminal justice systems handle it. Narrow legal definitions of what constitutes
hate crime, for instance, tend to lead to under-recording of incidents, which translates into low numbers of
prosecutions, thereby affording victims of crime fewer
opportunities to seek redress.
The report has also shown that there are many challenges inherent to recording data on hate crime.
Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)
Sample details and representativeness