Austria Austria Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Cyprus Cyprus Czechia Czechia Germany Germany Denmark Denmark Estonia Estonia Greece Greece Spain Spain Finland Finland France France Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Lithuania Lithuania Luxembourg Luxembourg Latvia Latvia Malta Malta Netherlands Netherlands Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Sweden Sweden Slovenia Slovenia Slovakia Slovakia United Kingdom United Kingdom


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012), Synthesis Report: The Racial Equality Directive: application and challenges, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

View full Research



Type of publication


Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus


Target Population

Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities

Key findings

This report discusses the application of the Racial Equality Directive through the laws and practices in the 27 EU Member States. In doing so it explores the
challenges to the effective realisation of the directive’s goals and in conclusion discusses how such obstacles might be overcome. To the extent possible, the report
outlines how legislation and practices have evolved over time. However, there is often an absence of data
at Member State level and, where data is collected, divergent end-purposes and methodologies impede
direct and precise comparisons. Indicators capable of facilitating more standardised measurements of progress in the realisation of fundamental rights are in a state of
ongoing development. In this sense the FRA own work on indicators on the rights of the child constitutes a valuable tool for gauging implementation that highlights the need for further research of this nature.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Desk Research

Sample details and representativeness


DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.