Greece Greece Hungary Hungary


Racism, discrimination, intolerance and extremism: Learning from experiences in Greece and Hungary, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Racism & xenophobia Discrimination

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities People with migrant background

Key findings

Crimes motivated by racism, xenophobia and related intolerances, the mainstreaming of elements of extremist ideology in political and public discourse, and ethnic discrimination all persist throughout the European Union. Growing alarm has been expressed at the national, EU and international levels with regard to manifestations of violent racism and other forms of intolerance especially in two EU Member States: Greece and Hungary. An additional important concern is the substantial parliamentary representation of parties that use paramilitary tactics or are closely associated with paramilitary groups and use extremist rhetoric to target irregular migrants in Greece, and the Roma and Jews in Hungary.

In this context, FRA took the initiative to collect data and compile the present thematic situation report. It examines the effectiveness of responses by public authorities, statutory human rights bodies, and civil society organisations to racism, discrimination, intolerance and extremism in these two EU Member States.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Desk research and on site visits - qualitative research.
The report builds on fact-finding meetings with governmental officials, prosecutors, law enforcement agencies, members of the Parliament, statutory human rights' bodies and civil society organisations held during the second half of 2013. The report also uses surveys and reports of the Council of Europe, and the UN.

Sample details and representativeness

During the second half of 2013, FRA held meetings with representatives of17 public authorities, statutory human rights' bodies, and civil society organisations.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.