Netherlands Netherlands


Kloek, M.E., Peters, K.& Sijtsma, M. (2013), 'How Muslim Women in The Netherlands Negotiate Discrimination During Leisure Activities', Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, (35) 5, pp. 405-421

View full Research



Type of publication

Study - qualitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

NL310 - Utrecht

Type of Institution



Kloek, M.E., Peters, K.& Sijtsma, M.

Main Thematic Focus


Target Population


Key findings

All Muslim women interviewed in this study described discriminatory actions that had confronted family members and friends. This is especially true for women who wear the veil because their visible head covering signals their "otherness" to people. The discrimination was typically of a nonviolent nature and included unpleasant looks, disapproval, being made to feel unwelcome in a place, and negative remarks. Perceived discrimination often does not prevent the women from participating in leisure activities. Instead, they actively negotiate discrimination by applying various coping strategies, including justification, direct confrontation, accepting the discrimination, and modifying leisure behaviour.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Study is based on in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 Muslim women lived in Utrecht.

Sample details and representativeness

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.