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Bradford, B. and García Añón, J. and García Saez, J.A. and Gascón Cuenca, A. and Llorente Ferreres, A. (2013), The police identification by ethnic profile in Spain. Review of experiences and attitudes in relation to the police actions (Identificación policial por perfil étnico en España. Informe sobre experiencias y actitudes en relación con las actuaciones policiales), Valencia, Tirant lo Blanch

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Type of publication

Study - qualitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution



Bradford, B. and García Añón, J. and García Saez, J.A. and Gascón Cuenca, A. and Llorente Ferreres, A.

Main Thematic Focus

Ethnic profiling

Target Population

General population

Key findings

A survey on the Spanish police ethnic profiling that analyses issues occurring during 2011 and 2012 concluded that:

The persons belonging to ethnic minorities born in Spain were three times more likely to be stopped (16%) than the majority Caucasian population (5%).

The percentage for each ethnic group who were stopped was:
- 60% Gypsy
- 45% Maghrebian
- 39% Afro-Latino American
- 22% Andean Latino American
- 6% European Caucasian

Muslim religion persons were identified in one ratio of three times greater than the Christian or those who professed other or no religion.

This report underscores the need for the Ministry of the Interior and of the Spanish authorities to adopt binding rules that prohibit the use of ethnic profiles by the police officers and implement mechanisms of monitoring and complaint.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The survey was conducted through telephone and personal interviews.
It was developed based on 2 existing surveys results developed in 2013 by Metroscopia with the support of the Open Society Foundations.

Qualitative and Quantitative research
See pp. 239 - Annex 5 Questionnaire. Survey on experiences and attitudes in relation to policing. Open Society. Metroscopia. April 2013

Sample details and representativeness

• Field of study: Spain.
• Universe of study: individuals 18 years and over, resident in Spain.
• Size and distribution of the sample: 2,000 interviews proportional to the distribution of the Spanish population.
• And other 800 interviews proportional to the minority population living in Spain.
• The survey was conducted to 2,800 people from across Spain through telephone and personal interviews
• With a strategic sampling design based on the available information.
• Sampling error: a level of confidence of a 95.5%0
• The data error margin relating to the total of each sample is ± 3.2.
• Information collection method: the general survey was conducted via telephone, while the survey of minority populations has taken place through personal interview in households of respondents.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.