Austria Austria Belgium Belgium Bulgaria Bulgaria Cyprus Cyprus Czechia Czechia Germany Germany Denmark Denmark Estonia Estonia Greece Greece Spain Spain Finland Finland France France Croatia Croatia Hungary Hungary Ireland Ireland Italy Italy Lithuania Lithuania Luxembourg Luxembourg Latvia Latvia Malta Malta Netherlands Netherlands Poland Poland Portugal Portugal Romania Romania Sweden Sweden Slovenia Slovenia Slovakia Slovakia United Kingdom United Kingdom


OSCE/ODIHR Hate Crime Reporting Bias Against Muslims

View full Research



Type of publication

Hate crime reporting

Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Intergovernmental organisation


OSCE/ODIHR | Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe / Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime Incitement to hatred or violence Racism & xenophobia

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Refugees & asylum seekers

Key findings

Forty-one participating States have submitted hate crime information to ODIHR, 17 of which provided detailed statistics in accordance with the bias motivations on which ODIHR reports.
One hundred eleven civil society groups have submitted information on 5,357 incidents, covering 41 participating States, which includes 4,197 incidents that were disaggregated by type of incident and bias motivation. This information is supplemented by data provided by IOM, UNHCR and OSCE missions covering 35 countries.
While the general level of reporting to ODIHR remains comparable to previous years, limited data on some bias motives continue to indicate under-reporting and gaps in recording hate crime.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Desk Research
ODIHR’s annual hate crime reporting cycle comprises several stages. First, the Office issues a call for submissions to OSCE participating States, civil society organizations and its partner intergovernmental organizations. Second, ODIHR analyses reported data and information, and assesses whether it can be included in the report. Third, the Office releases data for consultation with participating States and other contributors. Lastly, ODIHR reviews suggested amendments to the report, updates to include late submissions, and prepares the information for final presentation.

Sample details and representativeness


DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.