Bulgaria Bulgaria


Nikolova, Y. (Николова, Ю.), Spasov, O. (Спасов, О.) and Daskalova, N. (Даскалова, Н.) (2016), Hate speech in Bulgaria: risk zones, vulnerable objects (Езикът на омраза в България: рискови зони, уязвими обекти), Sofia, Centre for Policy Modernisation, Media Democracy Foundation

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Type of publication

Study - qualitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Civil society organisation


Bulgaria, Centre for Policy Modernisation

Main Thematic Focus

Hate speech

Target Population

Muslims Refugees & asylum seekers Ethnic minorities

Key findings

The report finds that hate speech is rampant in Bulgaria. More than 50% of the people have encountered this phenomenon. Very few people know, however, that it is a crime under Bulgarian criminal law. The objects of hate speech are usually vulnerable groups such as Roma, refugees, Muslims. The report finds also that in the past few years the use of hate speech has grown in the media, in the political sphere and in everyday life.
According to the study, the Roma are most often the target of hate speech (according to 93 % of the respondents), followed by refugees (73 %), homosexual men (70 %), people from the Middle East (70 %) and Turks (66 %).

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Qualitative methodology: 30 in-depth face-to-face interviews with 24 respondents from Sofia and six from other cities (journalists and human rights activists)
The interviews were conducted between June and September 2015. The respondents were asked about sources of hate speech, objects, dissemination channels and prevention.

Sample details and representativeness

Number of respondents: 30

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.