Nikolova, Y. (Николова, Ю.), Spasov, O. (Спасов, О.) and Daskalova, N. (Даскалова, Н.) (2016), Hate speech in Bulgaria: risk zones, vulnerable objects (Езикът на омраза в България: рискови зони, уязвими обекти), Sofia, Centre for Policy Modernisation, Media Democracy Foundation
Nikolova, Y. (Николова, Ю.), Spasov, O. (Спасов, О.) and Daskalova, N. (Даскалова, Н.) (2016), Hate speech in Bulgaria: risk zones, vulnerable objects (Езикът на омраза в България: рискови зони, уязвими обекти), Sofia, Centre for Policy Modernisation, Media Democracy FoundationView full Research
Type of publication
Study - qualitative research
Area/location of interest
Not applicable - national level
Type of Institution
Civil society organisation
Bulgaria, Centre for Policy Modernisation
Main Thematic Focus
Muslims Refugees & asylum seekers Ethnic minorities
The report finds that hate speech is rampant in Bulgaria. More than 50% of the people have encountered this phenomenon. Very few people know, however, that it is a crime under Bulgarian criminal law. The objects of hate speech are usually vulnerable groups such as Roma, refugees, Muslims. The report finds also that in the past few years the use of hate speech has grown in the media, in the political sphere and in everyday life.
According to the study, the Roma are most often the target of hate speech (according to 93 % of the respondents), followed by refugees (73 %), homosexual men (70 %), people from the Middle East (70 %) and Turks (66 %).
Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)
Qualitative methodology: 30 in-depth face-to-face interviews with 24 respondents from Sofia and six from other cities (journalists and human rights activists)
The interviews were conducted between June and September 2015. The respondents were asked about sources of hate speech, objects, dissemination channels and prevention.
Sample details and representativeness
Number of respondents: 30
DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.