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European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2017), Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives - Summary, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

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Type of publication


Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities People of African descent & Black Europeans Religious minorities People with migrant background LGBTI

Key findings

Efforts to counter hate crime can only succeed if victims report the wrongs they endure, and the various responsible actors all do their part to ensure that perpetrators are brought to justice. As the report underscores, a variety of factors prevent this from
happening. These include weaknesses in the applicable legal
frameworks, difficulties in grasping and working with the concept of hate crime, uncertainties as to the concept’s significance and meaning to the organisation in which a  professional works, and risks of institutional discrimination, which can have a devastating impact on the trust of victims and their readiness to report their victimisation.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The report’s findings are based on desk research and interviews with
professionals in all 28 EU Member States. FRA collected data through its multidisciplinary research network, Franet. The desk research examined Member States’ legal and organisational frameworks
for tackling hate crime.

Sample details and representativeness

The field research was conducted between August  2013 and February 2014. It included 263 semi-structured interviews with experts in all 28 EU Member States. These fell into three categories: police officers; public prosecutors and judges from criminal courts;
and experts working for victim support services or civil society
actors with a human rights remit. The interviews were conducted
face to face or, in rare cases, by telephone, and were based on
a set of detailed – closed and open – questions prepared by FRA.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.