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European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Muslims – Selected findings, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

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Type of publication

Survey - quantitative research

Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime Incitement to hatred or violence Racism & xenophobia Integration & inclusion

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Religious minorities

Key findings

The results show that, overall, the majority of firstand second-generation Muslim immigrants surveyed in 15 EU Member States feel attached to the country they live in; trust its institutions – often more so than the general public; and are comfortable interacting with people of different religious or ethnic backgrounds. However, the results show little progress in terms of discrimination and hate crime. Compared to 10 years ago – when the first wave of this survey was conducted – the proportion of Muslim respondents who experience discrimination remains high, especially when looking for work. Hate-motivated physical violence and harassment also persists.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The findings presented in this report are based on interviews, in 15 EU Member States, with immigrants and descendants of immigrants who indicated that they are Muslim when asked about their religion.

Sample details and representativeness

10,527 respondents for this report, from six different groups of origin in 15 EU Member States – Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Slovenia and the United Kingdom. The average age of the Muslim respondents is 38 years; 50 % are women and 50 % are men, and slightly more than 50% of the Muslim respondents covered in this analysis hold the citizenship of the Member State they reside in.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.