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European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2017), Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey | Main results, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna.

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Type of publication

Survey - quantitative research

Geographical coverage

EU comparative

Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

EU body


FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime Incitement to hatred or violence Racism & xenophobia Integration & inclusion

Target Population

Muslims Migrants Ethnic minorities People of African descent & Black Europeans Religious minorities People with migrant background Roma

Key findings

The results show little progress compared to eight years ago, when the first wave of this survey was conducted:
the proportions of those experiencing discrimination, as well as physical violence and harassment motivated by hatred, and of those not aware of relevant legislation and possibilities for redress, remain at levels that raise serious concern. Overall, Roma respondents and respondents with Sub-Saharan or North-African backgrounds – and in particular second-generation respondents – experience higher rates of discrimination, harassment and violence motivated by hatred.
Nonetheless, the majority of respondents feel strongly attached to the country they live in and show high levels of trust in their country’s public institutions, including its legal system and the police. However, respondents
who have experienced discrimination, harassment or violence motivated by hatred show significantly lower levels of trust and feel less attached to the country in which they live. This shows that a failure to deliver
effective protection from discrimination and hate crime can undermine integration and social inclusion policies, affecting the social cohesion of our societies.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The findings presented in this report are based on interviews, in 15 EU Member States, with self-identified immigrants and descendants and Roma.
25,515 respondents living in 22,690 households were interviewed.
The main interview mode for EU-MIDIS II was Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) – that is, face-toface interviews administered by interviewers using a
computerised questionnaire. The English source questionnaire, developed by FRA, was translated into 22 EU languages as well as into Arabic, Kurdish, Russian, Somali, Tamazight and Turkish.
Advanced and new sampling ethodologies had to be developed and employed in most countries. Areas with lower densities of the target population were excluded.

Sample details and representativeness

EU-MIDIS II collected information from 25,515 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all 28 EU Member States. The EU-MIDIS II sample is representative for the selected population groups that were surveyed.
The sample includes groups with persons belonging to ethnic or national minorities, Roma and Russians, as well as persons born outside the EU (first-generation respondents) and individuals with at least one parent born outside the EU (second-generation respondents). All respondents were aged 16 years or older, and had lived in private households for at least 12 months before the survey.
EU-MIDIS II covered the following groups under the concept
‘immigrants and descendants of immigrants’:
• Immigrants and descendants of immigrants from
Turkey (in 6 EU Member States);
• Immigrants and descendants of immigrants from
North Africa (in 5 EU Member States);
• Immigrants and descendants of immigrants from
Sub-Saharan Africa (in 12 EU Member States);
• Immigrants and descendants of immigrants from
South Asia and Asia (in 4 EU Member States);
• Recent immigrants from other non-EU/EFTA countries
(in 2 EU Member States);
• Russian minorities (in 3 EU Member States);
• Roma (in 9 EU Member States).

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.