Finland Finland


Owal group Oy (2018), Selvitys vihapuheesta ja häirinnästä ja niiden vaikutuksista eri väestöryhmiin. Seurantakysely 2017 (Report on hate speech and harassment and their impact on different target groups. Follow-up survey 2017), Owal group Oy 6/2018.

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Type of publication

Survey - quantitative research

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution

Research Institute


Finland, Owal group Oy

Main Thematic Focus

Hate crime Incitement to hatred or violence

Target Population

Migrants People with migrant background

Key findings

The study shows that 66 % of the respondents have observed hate speach or harassment directed at persons with a foreign language, foreign nationality or migrant status, and 46 % at persons belonging to religious minorities. The share of these groups in the sample were only 8 % and 23 %. The most common type of incidents involved verbal abuse, harassment and humiliation. The most common place of the incidents were, in the case of religious minorities, facebook and, in the case of foreigners and migrants, the public transportation system. 69 % did not report the incidents to public authorities and the main reasons for this was that they did not believe that anything would be done (68 %) or that anything could be done (57 %). In comparison to the previous survey conducted in 2015, hate speach and harassment towards migrants and foreigners has decreased.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

The survey was a follow-up to a similar survey conducted in 2015, only minor alterations were made, including the addition of two target groups. Statistical information was gathered through an online questionnaire, which was sent via organisations to potential representatives of the target groups.

Sample details and representativeness

The target groups studied included sexual minorities, persons with disabilities, Romas, Samis, swedish-speaking Finns, migrants (foreign language, foreign nationality, migrant status) and religious minorities. In total 735 answers were obtained from representatives of the target groups, 163 represented religious minorities and 7 % of these were Muslims. The study does not provide information on the number of Muslims in the group of migrants.

DISCLAIMERThe information presented here is collected under contract by the FRA's research network FRANET. The information and views contained do not necessarily reflect the views or the official position of the FRA.