Belgium Belgium


Brems, Eva, Discrimination against Muslims in Belgium (July 2, 2019). Serif Onur Bahcecik and Melek Saral (eds), State, Religion and Muslims, Between Discrimination and Protection at the Legislative, Executive and Judicial Levels, Brill Publishers, 202, 2019. 

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Type of publication

Academic article

Geographical coverage


Area/location of interest

Not applicable - national level

Type of Institution



Belgium, Brems, E.

Main Thematic Focus


Target Population

Muslims Religious minorities

Key findings

The chapter discusses discrimination against Muslims in Belgium with an overview of background of the situation of Muslims in Belgium and an analysis of discrimination at the Legislative, Executive and Judicial levels. The chapter discussed the extent to which Islam enjoys religious freedom as well as the restrictions on Muslim religious practice, such as women’s religious dress, and un-stunned religious slaughter. Finally, the chapter considers the impact of structural discrimination of the education and employment of persons with a migration background, the group to which most Muslims in Belgium belong.

Methodology (Qualitative/Quantitative and exact type used, questionnaires etc)

Analysis of discrimination at the Legislative, Executive and Judicial levels with a focus upon education, employment, the exercise of religion, state relations with religious communities, and hate crime and hate speech.

Sample details and representativeness


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