Research findings

This database section allows to search for EU, national and regional or local level research and studies, including surveys and polls about hate speech, hate crime and discrimination against Muslims.

Filter the database by

Research findings

MS

Institution

YEAR

TITLE

FOCUS

GROUPS

KEY FINDINGS Read more
AustriaAustria
ZARA | Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit 2012 ZARA (Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit) (2012), Racism Report 2012. Individual case report about racist attacks and structures in Austria, Vienna Racism & xenophobia Migrants In 2012, the ZARA team documented all together 772 racist incidents. 22% of these incidents concern access to goods and services, 22% the internet, 16% public sphere, 9% employment and entrepreneurship, 8% the police, 7% politics and media, 6% other authorities, 6% smearing and 4% of these incidents concern attacks against anti-racism-work. View more
AustriaAustria
ECRI | European Commission against Racism and Intolerance | Council of Europe 2012 ECRI Report, ECRI Conclusions on the implementation of reommendations in respect of Austria subject to interim follow-up, Adopted on 4 December 2012 Racism & xenophobia, Discrimination Muslims, Migrants, Ethnic minorities, People of African descent & Black Europeans The Federal Bureau of Anti-Corruption (BAK) and the Central Public Prosecutor’s Office for the prosecution of commercial criminal matters and corruption (WKStA) were established. Both are competent to investigate on abuse of authority comprising racial discrimination. However, in ECRI’s view this is not sufficient because the two bodies are not independent from the police and prosecution service and because there is no indication that victims of discrimination are aware of the two bodies’ competence to investigate alleged discriminatory behaviour, which is not in any way published. View more
AustriaAustria
Austria, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism | Bundesministerium für Inneres, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekämpfung 2012 Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism (Bundesministerium für Inneres, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekämpfung) (2012), Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution (Verfassungsschutzbericht) Hate crime Right-wing extremists The Annual report notes that in 2012, a total of 377 criminal acts with right-wing extremist, xenophobic/racist or Islamophobic connection have been reported. Right-wing extremist scenes kept a notably low profile. The right-wing revisionist scene, whose members belong mainly to the older generation, kept mostly to itself and pursued its ideology behind closed doors. The neo-Nazi scene was deprived of its leadership in prison). In the year under review, there was a rise in criminal offences that were not directly linked to right-wing extremism but were committed by members of right-wing extremist groups. Furthermore, in several regions right-wing extremists were observed to have increased contacts with criminal circles and organisations. View more
AustriaAustria
BelgiumBelgium
BulgariaBulgaria
CyprusCyprus
CzechiaCzechia
GermanyGermany
DenmarkDenmark
EstoniaEstonia
GreeceGreece
SpainSpain
FinlandFinland
FranceFrance
CroatiaCroatia
HungaryHungary
IrelandIreland
ItalyItaly
LithuaniaLithuania
LuxembourgLuxembourg
LatviaLatvia
MaltaMalta
NetherlandsNetherlands
PolandPoland
PortugalPortugal
RomaniaRomania
SwedenSweden
SloveniaSlovenia
SlovakiaSlovakia
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
Eurofound 2017 Eurofound (2017), Religion at work, Eurofound, Dublin. Discrimination Muslims, Migrants This article discusses the issues related to religion in the workplace. An overview of significant cases of dispute between employers and employees is provided, as well as examples of social partners’ initiatives to accommodate the needs of religious people in the workplace. View more
AustriaAustria
BelgiumBelgium
BulgariaBulgaria
CyprusCyprus
CzechiaCzechia
GermanyGermany
DenmarkDenmark
EstoniaEstonia
GreeceGreece
SpainSpain
FinlandFinland
FranceFrance
CroatiaCroatia
HungaryHungary
IrelandIreland
ItalyItaly
LithuaniaLithuania
LuxembourgLuxembourg
LatviaLatvia
MaltaMalta
NetherlandsNetherlands
PolandPoland
PortugalPortugal
RomaniaRomania
SwedenSweden
SloveniaSlovenia
SlovakiaSlovakia
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
OSCE/ODIHR | Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe / Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights 2012 OSCE/ODIHR Hate Crime Reporting Bias Against Muslims Hate crime, Incitement to hatred or violence, Racism & xenophobia Muslims, Migrants, Refugees & asylum seekers The information collected by ODIHR demonstrates that hate crimes remained a serious and wide-ranging problem in 2012. The full extent of hate crimes in the OSCE region continues to be obscured by a lack of adequate or reliable data. Although there were improvements to data collection by governments in 2012, it is clear from the information provided to ODIHR that significant gaps in data collection remain a major obstacle to understanding the prevalence and nature of hate crimes within most participating States and across the OSCE as a region. A number of participating States do not collect any statistics on hate crimes. Some participating States collect data, but do not make the data public. View more
AustriaAustria
BelgiumBelgium
BulgariaBulgaria
CyprusCyprus
CzechiaCzechia
GermanyGermany
DenmarkDenmark
EstoniaEstonia
GreeceGreece
SpainSpain
FinlandFinland
FranceFrance
HungaryHungary
IrelandIreland
ItalyItaly
LithuaniaLithuania
LuxembourgLuxembourg
LatviaLatvia
MaltaMalta
NetherlandsNetherlands
PolandPoland
PortugalPortugal
RomaniaRomania
SwedenSweden
SloveniaSlovenia
SlovakiaSlovakia
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 2012 European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012), Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims' rights, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna. Hate crime Muslims, Migrants, Ethnic minorities, People of African descent & Black Europeans, Religious minorities, People with migrant background, LGBTI The report identified a great degree of variation in how the 27 EU Member States deal with hate crime. This variation reflects how such criminality is approached, which has a direct effect on how law enforcement agencies and criminal justice systems handle it. Narrow legal definitions of what constitutes hate crime, for instance, tend to lead to under-recording of incidents, which translates into low numbers of prosecutions, thereby affording victims of crime fewer opportunities to seek redress. The report has also shown that there are many challenges inherent to recording data on hate crime. View more
AustriaAustria
BelgiumBelgium
BulgariaBulgaria
CyprusCyprus
CzechiaCzechia
GermanyGermany
DenmarkDenmark
EstoniaEstonia
GreeceGreece
SpainSpain
FinlandFinland
FranceFrance
HungaryHungary
IrelandIreland
ItalyItaly
LithuaniaLithuania
LuxembourgLuxembourg
LatviaLatvia
MaltaMalta
NetherlandsNetherlands
PolandPoland
PortugalPortugal
RomaniaRomania
SwedenSweden
SloveniaSlovenia
SlovakiaSlovakia
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
FRA | European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights 2012 European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (2012), Synthesis Report: The Racial Equality Directive: application and challenges, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, Vienna. Discrimination Muslims, Migrants, Ethnic minorities This report discusses the application of the Racial Equality Directive through the laws and practices in the 27 EU Member States. In doing so it explores the challenges to the effective realisation of the directive’s goals and in conclusion discusses how such obstacles might be overcome. To the extent possible, the report outlines how legislation and practices have evolved over time. However, there is often an absence of data at Member State level and, where data is collected, divergent end-purposes and methodologies impede direct and precise comparisons. Indicators capable of facilitating more standardised measurements of progress in the realisation of fundamental rights are in a state of View more
AustriaAustria
Muftic, A. 2013 Muftic, A. (2013), Islam in the public agenda. Strategies of verbally opposing Islamophobia (Islam in der öffentlichen Agenda. Strategien des widerständigen Sprechens gegen die Islamophobie), SWS-Rundschau, Vol. 53, No.4, pp. 454-473 Islamophobia General population A discourse analysis of Islamophobia in Austrian media and public discusses strategies to oppose Islamophobic discourse. According to the author, These are mainly defensive strategies, which are applied by Austrian Islam groups. They are related to the religion itself, like informing people about the rules of Koran and publishing suras. The article also addresses a subversive strategy from Germany, which is applied by "Kanak-attac" - a group of Islam activists. View more
AustriaAustria
ZARA | Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit 2013 ZARA (Civil Courage and Work Against Racism) (Zivilcourage und Anti-Rassismus-Arbeit) (2013) Racism Report 2013. Individual case report about racist attacks and structures in Austria, Vienna Racism & xenophobia Migrants In 2013, ZARA - Civil Courage and Work Against Racism NGO documented all together 731 racist incidents. 19% of these incidents concern goods and services, 20% the internet, 19% public sphere, 7% employment and entrepreneurship, 8% the police, 8% politics and media, 6% other authorities, 8% smearing and 5% of these incidents concern attacks against anti-racism-work. View more
AustriaAustria
Austria, Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism | Bundesministerium für Inneres, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekämpfung 2013 Federal Ministry of the Interior, Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution and Counterterrorism (Bundesministerium für Inneres, Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz und Terrorismusbekämpfung) (2013), Annual Report on the Protection of the Constitution (Verfassungsschutzbericht), Vienna Hate crime Right-wing extremists In 2013, a total of 574 criminal acts with right-wing extremist, xenophobic/racist, Islamophobic, anti-Semitic background were recorded. Right-wing extremist organisations continued to increasingly use the internet for recruitment and radicalisation activities. A movement, which has been active in several Austrian provinces since 2012, focussed its propaganda on the “identity” of its own people, which is to be absolutely preserved and protected against mass immigration and “Islamisation”. In 2013, this group carried out several active agitations. By means of pop cultural forms of protest (e.g. flash mobs), they tried to attract media attention. View more
CSVPDFPDFCSV