Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany


Article 12 (1) All Germans shall have the right freely to choose their occupation or profession, their place of work and their place of training. The practice of an occupation or profession may be regulated by or pursuant to a law. (2) No person may be required to perform work of a particular kind except within the framework of a traditional duty of community service that applies generally and equally to all. (3) Forced labour may be imposed only on persons deprived of their liberty by the judgment of a court. Article 12a (...) (6) If, during a state of defence, the need for workers in the areas specified in the second sentence of paragraph (3) of this Article cannot be met on a voluntary basis, the right of German citizens to abandon their occupation or place of employment may be restricted by or pursuant to a law in order to meet this need. Prior to the existence of a state of defence, the first sentence of paragraph (5) of this Article shall apply mutatis mutandis.

Type of law: 
National constitutional law
Charter article: