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Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany


Article 19 (...) (4) Should any person’s rights be violated by public authority, he may have recourse to the courts. If no other jurisdiction has been established, recourse shall be to the ordinary courts. The second sentence of paragraph (2) of Article 10 shall not be affected by this paragraph. Article 97 (1) Judges shall be independent and subject only to the law. (...) Article 101 (1) Extraordinary courts shall not be allowed. No one may be removed from the jurisdiction of his lawful judge. (2) Courts for particular fields of law may be established only by a law. Article 103 (1) In the courts every person shall be entitled to a hearing in accordance with law. (2) An act may be punished only if it was defined by a law as a criminal offence before the act was committed. (3) No person may be punished for the same act more than once under the general criminal laws.