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The Belgian Constitution


Article 12.The freedom of the individual is guaranteed.No one can be prosecuted except in the cases provided for by the law, and in the form prescribed by the law.(...) Article 13.No one can be separated, against his will, from the judge that the law has assigned to him. Article 14.No punishment can be introduced or administered except by virtue of the law. Article 23.Everyone has the right to lead a life in keeping with human dignity.
To this end, the laws, federate laws and rules referred to in Article 134 guarantee
economic, social and cultural rights, taking into account corresponding obligations, and
determine the conditions for exercising them:(...) 2° the right to social security, to health care and to social, medical and legal aid;(...) Article 144.Disputes about civil rights belong exclusively to the competence of the courts. However, the law can empower the Council of State or federal administrative courts, in accordance with the terms it specifies, to rule on the effects that their decisions have with respect to civil law. Article 145.Disputes about political rights belong to the competence of the courts, except for the exceptions established by the law. Article 146. A court and a body capable of rendering judgment can only be established by virtue of a law. No extraordinary courts or commissions may be created, no matter under which designation. Article 148. Court hearings are public, unless such public access endangers morals or the peace; if such is the case, the Court so declares in a judgment.In cases of political or press offences, proceedings can only be conducted in camera on the basis of a unanimous vote. Article 149.Each judgment is supported by reasons. It is pronounced publicly.