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Constitution of the Italian Republic


Art. 30. It is the duty and right of parents to support, raise and educate their children, even if born out of wedlock. Art. 33. The Republic guarantees the freedom of the arts and sciences, which may be freely taught. The Republic lays down general rules for education and establishes state schools of all branches and grades. Entities and private persons have the right to establish schools and institutions of education, at no cost to the State. The law, when setting out the rights and obligations for the non-state
schools which request parity, shall ensure that these schools enjoy full liberty and offer their pupils an education and qualifications of the same standards as those afforded to pupils in state schools. State examinations are prescribed for admission to and graduation from the various branches and grades of schools and for qualification to exercise a profession. Art. 34. Schools are open to everyone. Primary education, given for at least eight years, is compulsory and free of tuition. Capable and deserving pupils, including those lacking financial resources, have the right to attain the highest levels of education. The Republic renders this right effective through scholarships, allowances
to families and other benefits, which shall be assigned through competitive examinations.