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Constitution of the Italian Republic


Art. 97. Public offices are organised according to the provisions of law, so as to ensure the efficiency and impartiality of administration. The regulations of the offices lay down the areas of competence, the duties
and the responsibilities of the officials. Employment in public administration is accessed through competitive examinations, except in the cases established by law. Art. 113. The judicial safeguarding of rights and legitimate interests before the bodies of ordinary or administrative justice is always permitted against
acts of the public administration. Such judicial protection may not be excluded or limited to particular kinds of appeal or for particular categories of acts.
The law determines which judicial bodies are empowered to annul acts of public administration in the cases and with the consequences provided for
by the law itself.