Article 43 (Freedom to learn and to teach) (1) The freedom to learn and to teach is guaranteed. (2) The state may not programme education and culture in accordance with any philosophical, aesthetic, political, ideological or religious directives. (3) Public education shall not be linked to a religious belief. (4) The right to create private and cooperative schools is guaranteed. Article 73 (Education, culture and science) (1) Everyone has the right to education and culture. (2) The state shall promote the democratisation of education and the other conditions needed for an education conducted at school and via other means of training to contribute to equal opportunities, the overcoming of economic, social and cultural inequalities, the development of the personality and the spirit of tolerance, mutual understanding, solidarity and responsibility, to social progress and to democratic participation in collective life. (3) In cooperation with the media, cultural associations and foundations, cultural and recreational groups, cultural heritage associations, residents’ organisations and other cultural agents, the state shall promote the democratisation of culture by encouraging and ensuring access by all citizens to cultural enjoyment and creation. (4) The state shall encourage and support scientific research and creation and technological innovation, in such a way as to ensure their freedom and autonomy, strengthen competitivity and ensure articulation between scientific institutions and enterprises. Article 74 (Education) (1) Everyone has the right to education, with the guarantee of the right to equal opportunities in access to and success in schooling. (2) In implementing the education policy, the state is charged with: (a) Ensuring universal, compulsory and free basic education; (b) Creating a public, and developing the general, preschool education system; (c) Guaranteeing permanent education and eliminating illiteracy; (d) In accordance with his capabilities, guaranteeing every citizen access to the highest levels of education, scientific research and artistic creation; (e) Progressively making all levels of education free of charge; (f) Inserting schools into the communities they serve and establishing links between education and economic, social and cultural activities; (g) Promoting and supporting disabled citizens’ access to education and supporting special education when necessary; (h) Protecting and developing Portuguese sign language, as an expression of culture and an instrument for access to education and equal opportunities; (i) Ensuring that emigrants’ children are taught the Portuguese language and enjoy access to Portuguese culture; (j) Ensuring that immigrants’ children receive adequate support in order to enable them to effectively enjoy the right to education. Article 75 (Public, private and cooperative education) (1) The state shall create a network of public education establishments that covers the needs of the whole population. (2) The state shall recognise and inspect private and cooperative education, as laid down by law. Article 76 (University and access to higher education) (1) The regime governing access to university and the other higher education institutions shall guarantee equal opportunities in and the democratisation of the education system, and must have due regard to the country’s needs for qualified staff and to raising its educational, cultural and scientific level. (2) As laid down by law and without prejudice to an adequate assessment of the quality of education, universities shall enjoy autonomy in drawing up their own by-laws and in scientific, pedagogical, administrative and financial matters. Article 77 (Democratic participation in education) (1) Teachers and students have the right to take part in the democratic management of schools, as laid down by law. (2) The law shall regulate the forms in which associations of teachers, students and parents, communities and institutions of a scientific nature participate in the definition of the education policy.