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Constitution of the Republic of Estonia


Article 23. No one may be convicted of an act which did not constitute a criminal offence under the law in force at the time the act was committed.
No one may be sentenced to a penalty that is more severe than the one that was applicable at the time the offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the offence, the law makes provision for a lighter penalty, the lighter penalty applies.
No one may be prosecuted or sentenced for a second time for an act in respect of which he or she has been the subject of a final conviction or acquittal pursuant to the law.
Article 24. No one may be transferred, against his or her free will, from the jurisdiction of a court specified by law to the jurisdiction of another court.
Everyone is entitled to attend any hearing held by a court in his or her case.
Court hearings are public. The court may, in the cases and pursuant to a procedure provided by law, order a hearing or a part thereof to be held in camera to protect a state secret or a trade secret, public morality or the private and family life of individuals, or where the interests of a minor, a victim, or the administration of justice so require.
Judgments are pronounced publicly, except in cases where the interests of a minor, a spouse, or a victim require otherwise.
In accordance with the procedure provided by law, everyone is entitled to appeal a judgment rendered in his or her case to a higher court.