§ 20. Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.
No one may be deprived of his or her liberty except in the cases and pursuant to a procedure provided by law:
1) to enforce a judgment of conviction rendered or a detention ordered by a court;
2) for the case of non-compliance with a direction of a court, or to guarantee fulfilment of a duty provided by law;
3) to prevent a criminal or administrative offence, to bring before a competent authority a person in relation to whom there is reasonable suspicion that he or she has committed such an offence, or to prevent such a person from absconding;
4) to place a minor under disciplinary supervision or to bring him or her before a competent authority to determine whether to impose such supervision;
5) to detain a person suffering from an infectious disease, a person of unsound mind, an alcoholic or a drug addict, if such a person is a danger to himself or herself or to others;
6) to prevent illegal settlement in Estonia and for removing a person from Estonia or for extraditing a person to a foreign state.
No one may be deprived of his or her liberty on the mere ground of inability to fulfil a contractual obligation.
§ 21. Everyone who has been deprived of his or her liberty must be informed promptly, in a language and manner which he or she understands, of the reason for the deprivation of liberty and of his or her rights, and be given an opportunity to notify those closest to him or her. A person suspected of a criminal offence must also be promptly given an opportunity to choose a counsel and to confer with him or her. The right of a person suspected of a criminal offence to notify those closest to him or her of the deprivation of liberty may be circumscribed only in the cases and pursuant to a procedure provided by law to prevent a criminal offence or in the interests of ascertaining the truth in a criminal case.
No one may be held in custody for more than forty-eight hours without a specific authorisation of a court. The decision of the court must be promptly communicated to the person in custody in a language and manner which he or she understands.