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Council of Europe Convention against Trafficking in Human Organs

Preamble:
‘[...] the purpose of this Convention is to prevent and combat trafficking in human organs, and that the implementation of the provisions of the Convention concerning substantive criminal law should be carried out taking into account its purpose and the principle of proportionality, [...]‘
Article 4 – Illicit removal of human organs
‘(1) Each Party shall take the necessary legislative and other measures to establish as a criminal offence under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the removal of human organs from living or deceased donors:
(a) where the removal is performed without the free, informed and specific consent of the living or deceased donor, or, in the case of the deceased donor, without the removal being authorised under its domestic law;
(b) where, in exchange for the removal of organs, the living donor, or a third party, has been offered or has received a financial gain or comparable advantage;
(c) where in exchange for the removal of organs from a deceased donor, a third party has been offered or has received a financial gain or comparable advantage.
(2) Any State or the European Union may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, declare that it reserves the right not to apply paragraph 1. a of this article to the removal of human organs from living donors, in exceptional cases and in accordance with appropriate safeguards or consent provisions under its domestic law. Any reservation made under this paragraph shall contain a brief statement of the relevant domestic law.
(3) The expression “financial gain or comparable advantage” shall, for the purpose of paragraph 1, b and c, not include compensation for loss of earnings and any other justifiable expenses caused by the removal or by the related medical examinations, or compensation in case of damage which is not inherent to the removal of organs.
(4) Each Party shall consider taking the necessary legislative or other measures to establish as a criminal offence under its domestic law the removal of human organs from living or deceased donors where the removal is performed outside of the framework of its domestic transplantation system, or where the removal is performed in breach of essential principles of national transplantation laws or rules. If a Party establishes criminal offences in accordance with this provision, it shall endeavour to apply also Articles 9 to 22 to such offences.‘
Article 7 – Illicit solicitation, recruitment, offering and requesting of undue advantages
‘(1) Each Party shall take the necessary legislative and other measures to establish as a criminal offence under its domestic law, when committed intentionally, the solicitation and recruitment of an organ donor or a recipient, where carried out for financial gain or comparable advantage for the person soliciting or recruiting, or for a third party. [...]‘