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Building on the evidence collected and analysed by FRA, including its large scale surveys, as well as its thematic and annual reports, the Opinion illustrates how hate crime can vary from everyday acts committed by individuals on the street or over the Internet, to large-scale crimes carried out by extremist groups or totalitarian regimes. FRA encourages the EU as well as its Member States to address these crimes with targeted action in a number of areas. Suggested actions present the full range of considerations, from data collection, awareness-raising, and building trust in police to enhanced penalties and judicial review.

This Opinion forms part of the Agency’s work on hate crime. Together with other FRA work in the area, and several stakeholder meetings, it feeds into the Fundamental Rights Conference ‘Combating hate crime in the EU’, organised by the FRA in cooperation with the Lithuanian Presidency on 12-13 November in Vilnius. This work aims to support the broader efforts of combating hate crime in the EU.

This analysis was developed in response to the request of the Council of the European Union, Working Party on Fundamental Rights, Citizens’ Rights and Free Movement of Persons (FREMP).