FRA has just updated its annual overview of effective forced return monitoring systems across the EU.
The overview compares developments in EU Member States over the past five years. It reflects trends on staffing, qualifications of staff and the monitoring of return operations in its various phases.
It shows that 10 EU Member States lacked effective operational return monitoring systems in 2014. By 2018, this dropped to three. Two of them aim to have systems in place by 2019.
However, in Member States with a monitoring mechanism, project funding and other factors may limit the effectiveness of monitoring.
The overview does not cover the pool of forced return monitors under the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, Frontex.