Article 45 - Freedom of movement and of residence

Children deprived of parental care found in an EU Member State other than their own
June
2019

Children deprived of parental care found in an EU Member State other than their own

Handbook
Children deprived of parental care found in another EU Member State other than their own aims to strengthen the response of all relevant actors for child protection. The protection of those girls and boys is paramount and an obligation for EU Member States, derived from the international and European legal framework. The guide includes a focus on child victims of trafficking and children at risk, implementing an action set forth in the 2017 Communication stepping up EU action against trafficking in human beings, and takes into account identified patterns, including with respect to the gender specificity of the crime.
Making EU citizens’ rights a reality: national courts enforcing freedom of movement and related rights
August
2018

Making EU citizens’ rights a reality: national courts enforcing freedom of movement and related rights

Report
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
Protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in the EU – Comparative legal analysis – Update 2015
December
2015

Protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in the EU – Comparative legal analysis – Update 2015

Report
While awareness of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons is on the rise across the European Union, hurdles to their full enjoyment of their fundamental rights remain. This report updates FRA’s 2010 report on homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Being Trans in the EU – Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data – Summary
May
2015

Being Trans in the EU – Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data – Summary

Summary
Trans persons, or those whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex assigned them at birth, face frequent discrimination, harassment and violence across the European Union (EU) today. This reality triggers fears that persuade many to hide or disguise their true selves. This report examines issues of equal treatment and discrimination on two grounds, namely sexual orientation and gender identity.
Embedding fundamental rights in the security agenda
February
2015

Embedding fundamental rights in the security agenda

Paper
The recent events in Paris have challenged our sense of safety. They come at a time when the European Union is in the course of discussing its priorities in the area of internal security for the next five years. This paper examines the ways in which a fundamental rights perspective can benefit the current debate, so that a fundamental rights-anchored approach can support the creation of legitimate, effective and sustainable law enforcement and counter-radicalisation measures.
Being Trans in the EU - Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data
December
2014

Being Trans in the EU - Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data

Report
Trans persons, or those whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex assigned them at birth, face frequent discrimination, harassment and violence across the European Union (EU) today. This reality triggers fears that persuade many to hide or disguise their true selves. This report examines issues of equal treatment and discrimination on two grounds, namely sexual orientation and gender identity. It analyses data on the experiences of 6,579 trans respondents from the EU Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) survey, the largest body of empirical evidence of its kind to date.
Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the EU Member States
June
2011

Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the EU Member States

Report
The European Union (EU) is founded on the values of equality and non-discrimination, and through its policies works to combat discrimination, including discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. This report of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) twins its research findings in the field with the relevant EU standards in a short and easy-to-read publication designed to equip those who shape policy with the information they need to develop a coherent and systematic approach to the protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) rights.
Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity
November
2010

Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity

Report
This report updates the FRA comparative legal analysis of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity first published in June 2008. It presents the situation as it stood at the end of 2009, though information gathered in 2010 has been incorporated to the greatest possible extent. Five main trends among EU Member States can be noted from the information presented in this report.
A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union
July
2010

A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union

Factsheet
The factsheet "A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union" is the contribution of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) to the International AIDS Conference 2010, Vienna 18-23 July.
November
2009

The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States

Factsheet
This factsheet highlights the different experiences of Roma regarding accessing housing, healthcare, education and social welfare. Across all countries studied, many respondents identified two main problems: the difficulty in finding a job in the formal labour market of their destination country, and difficulties with registration of residence.
The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States
November
2009

The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States

Report
This report released by the Agency highlights the case of the Roma and their particular challenges in exercising these rights. Based on the evidence of its report, the FRA advises the EU and its Member States to adopt targeted policies promoting social cohesion to ensure that all citizens can exercise their right to freedom of movement effectively.