Publications

Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 3
July
2019

Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 3

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been regularly collecting data on migration since September 2015. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States and EU candidate countries particularly affected by migration movements. It addresses fundamental rights concerns between 1 April and 30 June 2019.
Young Jewish Europeans: perceptions and experiences of antisemitism
July
2019

Young Jewish Europeans: perceptions and experiences of antisemitism

Report
Based on FRA’s second large-scale survey on experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, this report focuses on the perspectives of young Jewish Europeans (aged 16-34) living in twelve EU Member States. It first describes this particular group and takes a look at defining antisemitism and understanding the place of Israel in it.
Forced return monitoring systems - 2019 update
June
2019

Forced return monitoring systems - 2019 update

Online publication
The EU Return Directive (2008/115/EC) in Article 8 (6) introduced an important fundamental rights safeguard for third-country nationals ordered to leave the EU because they do not or no longer fulfil the conditions for entry and/or stay. According to the directive, Member States must provide for an effective forced-return monitoring system.
Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: workers’ perspectives
June
2019

Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: workers’ perspectives

Report
This report is the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s fourth on the topic of severe labour exploitation. Based on interviews with 237 exploited workers, it paints a bleak picture of severe exploitation and abuse. The workers include both people who came to the EU, and EU nationals who moved to another EU country. They were active in diverse sectors, and their legal status also varied.
2019 update - NGO ships involved in search and rescue in the Mediterranean and criminal investigations
June
2019

2019 update - NGO ships involved in search and rescue in the Mediterranean and criminal investigations

Online publication
In 2018, some 2,299 people are estimated to have died or gone missing at sea while crossing the sea to reach Europe to escape war or persecution or to pursue a better life. This is on average more than six people per day. Before mid-2017, a significant share of migrants in distress at sea have been rescued by civil society vessels deployed with a humanitarian mandate to reduce fatalities and bring rescued migrants to safety. In 2018, however, authorities in some Member States viewed civil society-deployed rescue vessels with hostility. As a reaction, they seized rescue vessels, arrested crew members, and initiated legal procedures against them (more than a dozen altogether). In some cases, rescue vessels were blocked in harbours due to flag issues.
Children deprived of parental care found in an EU Member State other than their own
June
2019

Children deprived of parental care found in an EU Member State other than their own

Handbook
Children deprived of parental care found in another EU Member State other than their own aims to strengthen the response of all relevant actors for child protection. The protection of those girls and boys is paramount and an obligation for EU Member States, derived from the international and European legal framework. The guide includes a focus on child victims of trafficking and children at risk, implementing an action set forth in the 2017 Communication stepping up EU action against trafficking in human beings, and takes into account identified patterns, including with respect to the gender specificity of the crime.
The General Data Protection Regulation – one year on
June
2019

The General Data Protection Regulation – one year on

Paper
The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has applied across the European Union (EU) since 25 May 2018. One year on, this paper looks at how the new regulation has affected the daily work of civil society organisations (CSOs).
Fundamental Rights Report 2019
June
2019

Fundamental Rights Report 2019

Annual report
How much progress can we expect in a decade? Various rights-related instruments had been in place for 10 years in 2018, prompting both sobering and encouraging reflection on this question.
Fundamental Rights Report 2019 – FRA opinions
June
2019

Fundamental Rights Report 2019 – FRA opinions

Annual report
The year 2018 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2019 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the main developments in the thematic areas covered, and a synopsis of the evidence supporting these opinions.
Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals in the EU: a matter of human and fundamental rights
June
2019

Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals in the EU: a matter of human and fundamental rights

Annual report
This year’s focus explores the interrelationship between the human and fundamental rights framework and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the global Agenda 2030 in the context of Member States’ and the EU’s internal policies. It takes a closer look at the SDGs related to reducing inequality (SDG 10) and promoting peace, justice and strong institutions (SDG 16).
Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 2
May
2019

Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 2

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been regularly collecting data on migration since September 2015. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States and EU candidate countries particularly affected by migration movements. It addresses fundamental rights concerns between 1 January and 31 March 2019.
Proceedings that do justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part II
April
2019

Proceedings that do justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part II

Report
Victims of violent crime have various rights, including to protection and to access justice. But how are these rights playing out in practice? Are victims of violent crime properly seen, informed, empowered and heard? Do they tend to feel that justice has been done? Our four-part report series takes a closer look at these questions, based on interviews with victims, people working for victim support organisations, police officers, attorneys, prosecutors and judges.
Sanctions that do justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part III
April
2019

Sanctions that do justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part III

Report
Victims of violent crime have various rights, including to protection and to access justice. But how are these rights playing out in practice? Are victims of violent crime properly seen, informed, empowered and heard? Do they tend to feel that justice has been done? Our four-part report series takes a closer look at these questions, based on interviews with victims, people working for victim support organisations, police officers, attorneys, prosecutors and judges.
Victims' rights as standards of criminal justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part I
April
2019

Victims' rights as standards of criminal justice – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part I

Report
Victims of violent crime have various rights, including to protection and to access justice. But how are these rights playing out in practice? Are victims of violent crime properly seen, informed, empowered and heard? Do they tend to feel that justice has been done? Our four-part report series takes a closer look at these questions, based on interviews with victims, people working for victim support organisations, police officers, attorneys, prosecutors and judges.
Women as victims of partner violence – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part IV
April
2019

Women as victims of partner violence – Justice for victims of violent crime, Part IV

Report
Victims of violent crime have various rights, including to protection and to access justice. But how are these rights playing out in practice? Are victims of violent crime properly seen, informed, empowered and heard? Do they tend to feel that justice has been done? Our four-part report series takes a closer look at these questions, based on interviews with victims, people working for victim support organisations, police officers, attorneys, prosecutors and judges.
Roma women in nine EU Member States
April
2019

Roma women in nine EU Member States

Report
Despite efforts by the European Union (EU) and its Member States to reduce gender inequalities among citizens of Roma origin, important gender differences persist. Drawing on FRA’s own survey research in nine EU Member States this report highlights the position of Roma women in education, employment and health, as well as the extent to which they experience hate-motivated discrimination, harassment and physical violence.
Beyond the peak: challenges remain, but migration numbers drop
March
2019

Beyond the peak: challenges remain, but migration numbers drop

Paper
This report looks into the fundamental rights situation of asylum applicants and beneficiaries of international protection in the EU throughout 2018. It pulls together the main issues identified in FRA’s regular updates on fundamental rights related to asylum, migration and borders in selected EU Member States, which the agency has been publishing since September 2015.
Who will (not) get to vote in the 2019 European Parliament elections?
February
2019

Who will (not) get to vote in the 2019 European Parliament elections?

Paper
The right to vote is at the heart of what it means to live in a democratic society. However, legislation sets out a number of restrictions on this right. With a view to the European Parliament elections in 2019, this paper presents developments in the situation of the right to vote for people deprived of legal capacity in the EU.
Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 1
February
2019

Migration: Key fundamental rights concerns - Quarterly bulletin 1

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been regularly collecting data on migration since September 2015. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States and EU candidate countries particularly affected by large migration movements.
Unmasking bias motives in crimes: selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights
December
2018

Unmasking bias motives in crimes: selected cases of the European Court of Human Rights

Paper
This paper discusses the evolution of European Court of Human Rights case law relating to hate crime, providing an update on the most recent rulings. Approaching hate crime from a fundamental rights perspective, it shows how Member State authorities’ duty to effectively investigate the bias motivation of crimes flows from key human rights instruments, such as the European Convention on Human Rights.
Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism - Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU
December
2018

Experiences and perceptions of antisemitism - Second survey on discrimination and hate crime against Jews in the EU

Report
This report outlines the main findings of FRA’s second survey on Jewish people’s experiences with hate crime, discrimination and antisemitism in the European Union – the biggest survey of Jewish people ever conducted worldwide. Covering 12 EU Member States, the survey reached almost 16,500 individuals who identify as being Jewish. It follows up on the agency’s first survey, conducted in seven countries in 2012.
Preventing unlawful profiling today and in the future: a guide
December
2018

Preventing unlawful profiling today and in the future: a guide

Report
This guide explains what profiling is, the legal frameworks that regulate it, and why conducting profiling lawfully is both necessary to comply with fundamental rights and crucial for effective policing and border management. The guide also provides practical guidance on how to avoid unlawful profiling in police and border management operations.
From institutions to community living for persons with disabilities – perspectives from the ground - Summary
December
2018

From institutions to community living for persons with disabilities – perspectives from the ground - Summary

Summary
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) wanted to contribute to making steps to implement deinstitutionalisation more effective, by capturing concrete evidence of what is and what is not working on the ground. To do this, the agency conducted extensive fieldwork research in five EU Member States at different stages of the deinstitutionalisation process. This summary report presents the key findings of that fieldwork and the FRA opinions stemming from them.
From institutions to community living for persons with disabilities: perspectives from the ground
December
2018

From institutions to community living for persons with disabilities: perspectives from the ground

Report
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits both the EU and all of its Member States to realising the right of persons with disabilities to live independently in the community – which includes achieving deinstitutionalisation for those residing in institutional settings. But much remains to be done to make this a reality in practice. This report presents the main insights gained during fieldwork on the drivers of and barriers to deinstitutionalisation. Focusing on the local level, it gives voice to a diverse set of actors – most importantly, to people with disabilities themselves.
Being Black in the EU
November
2018

Being Black in the EU

Report
Almost twenty years after adoption of EU laws forbidding discrimination, people of African descent in the EU face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. This report outlines selected results from FRA's second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II). It examines the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.
Civil society space: views of organisations
November
2018

Civil society space: views of organisations

Paper
Civil society organisations play a critical role in democracies, and the importance of their work is widely recognised in international legal and policy documents. However, they face many obstacles when it comes to their day-to-day work. Based on the results of an online consultation with FRA's civil society network, the Fundamental Rights Platform (FRP), in September 2018, this paper complements the January 2018 report.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - November 2018 Highlights
November
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - November 2018 Highlights

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015, in light of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
Working with Roma: Participation and empowerment of local communities
November
2018

Working with Roma: Participation and empowerment of local communities

Report
This report presents the main insights gained during the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s project on local engagement for Roma inclusion, which explores how to best involve Roma in integration efforts at the local level. Bringing together local authorities and residents, especially Roma, it investigated what aspects work, which ones do not, and why this is the case.
Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2007–2017
November
2018

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2007–2017

Paper
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, discrimination and unequal treatment, property damage and graffiti or other forms of speech or text, including on the internet. The present report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
Fundamental Rights Forum 2018  - Chair's Statement
October
2018

Fundamental Rights Forum 2018 - Chair's Statement

Conference Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ 2018 Fundamental Rights Forum brought together more than 700 human rights champions at a time of widening social divisions and increasingly polarised politics across Europe.
Applying the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in law and policymaking at national level - Guidance
October
2018

Applying the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union in law and policymaking at national level - Guidance

Handbook
As a very modern human rights catalogue containing many rights not found in established bills of rights, the Charter indeed looks good on paper. Those familiar with the main principles of EU law can usually quickly recite that the Charter is always binding on the EU, and binding on Member States only when they are "implementing EU law". But what does this often-quoted language from Article 51 of the Charter actually mean?
Combating child poverty: an issue of fundamental rights
October
2018

Combating child poverty: an issue of fundamental rights

Report
Almost 25 million children under 18 are at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. Poverty deprives children of educational opportunities, childcare, access to health care, adequate food and housing, family support and even protection from violence. This report outlines data and survey findings that highlight the magnitude of child poverty in the EU, but also presents tools available to counter this phenomenon and keep track of progress made.
Fundamental rights considerations: NGO ships involved in search and rescue in the Mediterranean and criminal investigations - 2018
October
2018

Fundamental rights considerations: NGO ships involved in search and rescue in the Mediterranean and criminal investigations - 2018

Online publication
This note draws attention to the recent trend of criminalising search and rescue operations (SAR) in the Mediterranean Sea carried out by non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or other private entities. This includes seizing rescue vessels, as well as arrests for crew members, in some EU Member States. Most of such incidents concerned NGOs operating in the Central Mediterranean Sea.
10 keys to effectively communicating human rights
September
2018

10 keys to effectively communicating human rights

Toolkit
These 10 keys sum up the core points communicators and practitioners in various fields raised in FRA’s expert meetings, practitioners’ seminars and focus groups in 2017 and 2018.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - September 2018 Highlights
September
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - September 2018 Highlights

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015, in light of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
In Brief - Big data, algorithms and discrimination
September
2018

In Brief - Big data, algorithms and discrimination

Paper
With enormous volumes of data generated every day, more and more decisions are based on data analysis and algorithms. This can bring welcome benefits, such as consistency and objectivity, but algorithms also entail great risks. A FRA focus paper looks at how the use of automation in decision making can result in, or exacerbate, discrimination.
How the Eurosur Regulation affects fundamental rights
September
2018

How the Eurosur Regulation affects fundamental rights

Paper
In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
In Brief - Protecting workers from exploitation: boosting inspections
September
2018

In Brief - Protecting workers from exploitation: boosting inspections

Factsheet
Workers are being severely exploited for their labour across the EU, and inspections are not effective at stopping this reality. Based on interviews with almost 240 workers – including non-EU citizens who came to the EU and EU nationals who moved to another EU country to work – a new FRA report outlines the problem and identifies ways to bolster inspections.
Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: boosting workplace inspections
September
2018

Protecting migrant workers from exploitation in the EU: boosting workplace inspections

Report
Severe labour exploitation is widespread across the European Union. While workplace inspections can help counter this phenomenon, they need to be strengthened to do so effectively. Based on interviews and focus group discussions with almost 240 exploited workers active in diverse economic sectors, this report provides important evidence on how unscrupulous employers manipulate and undermine inspections, and on what can be done to counteract such efforts.
Making EU citizens’ rights a reality: national courts enforcing freedom of movement and related rights
August
2018

Making EU citizens’ rights a reality: national courts enforcing freedom of movement and related rights

Report
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - July 2018 Highlights
July
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - July 2018 Highlights

Paper
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015, in light of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
Transition from education to employment of young Roma in nine EU Member States
July
2018

Transition from education to employment of young Roma in nine EU Member States

Report
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
Forced return monitoring systems - 2018 update
June
2018

Forced return monitoring systems - 2018 update

Online publication
The EU Return Directive (2008/115/EC) in Article 8 (6) introduced an important fundamental rights safeguard for third-country nationals ordered to leave the EU because they do not or no longer fulfil the conditions for entry and/or stay. According to the Directive, Member States must provide for an effective forced-return monitoring system.
Hate crime recording and data collection practice across the EU
June
2018

Hate crime recording and data collection practice across the EU

Report
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality. In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.
Out of sight: migrant women exploited in domestic work
June
2018

Out of sight: migrant women exploited in domestic work

Paper
The stories of the domestic workers FRA interviewed for this paper reveal appalling working conditions and fundamental rights abuses in private homes across the EU. These stories indicate that, seven years on from FRA’s first report on domestic workers in 2011, little has changed in terms of the risks and experiences of severe labour exploitation domestic workers in the EU face.
Fundamental Rights Report 2018
June
2018

Fundamental Rights Report 2018

Annual report
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of rights protection. The European Pillar of Social Rights marked an important move towards a more ‘social Europe’. But, as experiences with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights underscore, agreement on a text is merely a first step. Even in its eighth year as the EU's binding bill of rights, the Charter's potential was not fully exploited, highlighting the need to more actively promote its use.
Fundamental Rights Report 2018 - FRA opinions
June
2018

Fundamental Rights Report 2018 - FRA opinions

Annual report
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the EU between January and December 2017, and outlines FRA’s opinions thereon.
Shifting perceptions: towards a rights‑based approach to ageing
June
2018

Shifting perceptions: towards a rights‑based approach to ageing

Annual report
European societies are not getting any younger! It is a simple truth we must face both about ourselves and Europe as a whole. In two generations, by 2080, those aged 65 or above will account for almost 30% of the European Union’s population.
#BigData: Discrimination in data-supported decision making
May
2018

#BigData: Discrimination in data-supported decision making

Paper
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways. This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area particularly affected by technological developments.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - May 2018 Highlights
May
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - May 2018 Highlights

Paper
In view of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015. This report focuses on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. This report addresses fundamental rights concerns between 1 March-30 April 2018.
From institutions to community living: key findings and FRA opinions
May
2018

From institutions to community living: key findings and FRA opinions

Summary
EU Member States, and the EU itself have ratified the CRPD, committing themselves to achieving independent living for persons with disabilities. Doing so requires a meaningful and sustainable shift from institutional to community-based living arrangements. This publication summarises the findings from the three FRA reports focusing on different aspects of deinstitutionalisation.
Handbook on European data protection law - 2018 edition
May
2018

Handbook on European data protection law - 2018 edition

Handbook
The rapid development of information technology has exacerbated the need for robust personal data protection, the right to which is safeguarded by both European Union (EU) and Council of Europe (CoE) instruments. Safeguarding this important right entails new and significant challenges as technological advances expand the frontiers of areas such as surveillance, communication interception and data storage. This handbook is designed to familiarise legal practitioners not specialised in data protection with this emerging area of the law.
Challenges facing civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU – Summary
May
2018

Challenges facing civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU – Summary

Summary
Civil society organisations in the European Union play a crucial role in promoting fundamental rights, but it has become harder for them do so – due to both legal and practical restrictions. This summary outlines the main findings and FRA’s opinions on the different types and patterns of challenges faced by civil society organisations across the EU,
Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the European Union – Volume II – Summary
May
2018

Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the European Union – Volume II – Summary

Summary
With terrorism, cyber-attacks and sophisticated cross-border criminal networks posing growing threats, the work of intelligence services has become more urgent, complex and international. Such work can strongly interfere with fundamental rights, especially privacy and data protection. While continuous technological advances potentially exacerbate the threat of such interference, effective oversight and remedies can curb the potential for abuse.
Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures – Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU
April
2018

Age assessment and fingerprinting of children in asylum procedures – Minimum age requirements concerning children’s rights in the EU

Report
The methods used to determine the age of an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity, integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
Children’s rights and justice – Minimum age requirements in the EU
April
2018

Children’s rights and justice – Minimum age requirements in the EU

Report
This report outlines Member States’ approaches to age requirements and limits regarding child participation in judicial proceedings; procedural safeguards for, and rights of, children involved in criminal proceedings; as well as issues related to depriving children of their liberty.
Mapping minimum age requirements: Children's rights and justice
April
2018

Mapping minimum age requirements: Children's rights and justice

Online publication
The right to access justice and all other relevant procedural rights are not just rights in themselves; they also protect against violations of every other right. Respect for children’s rights in the area of justice is therefore essential. International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law, and national legislation provide a number of relevant rights.
A persisting concern: anti-Gypsyism as a barrier to Roma inclusion
April
2018

A persisting concern: anti-Gypsyism as a barrier to Roma inclusion

Report
Despite ambitious initiatives, the fundamental rights situation of Roma in the EU remains profoundly troubling. This report examines the persisting phenomenon of anti-Gypsyism and its effect on Roma inclusion efforts. It first presents data on key manifestations of anti-Gypsyism, namely discrimination, harassment and hate crime.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - March 2018 Highlights
March
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - March 2018 Highlights

Paper
In view of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015. These focus on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
Handbook on European non-discrimination law – 2018 edition
March
2018

Handbook on European non-discrimination law – 2018 edition

Handbook
European non-discrimination law, as constituted in particular by the EU non-discrimination directives, and Article 14 of and Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibits discrimination across a range of contexts and grounds. This handbook examines European non-discrimination law stemming from these two sources as complementary systems, drawing on them interchangeably to the extent that they overlap, while highlighting differences where these exist.
Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - February 2018 Highlights
February
2018

Periodic data collection on the migration situation in the EU - February 2018 Highlights

Paper
In view of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has been collecting relevant data since September 2015. These focus on the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in Member States particularly affected by large migration movements. The countries covered are: Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Sweden.
Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges
February
2018

Migration to the EU: five persistent challenges

Paper
EU Member States’ legal and practical responses to migrants and refugees implicate several of their fundamental rights, as enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (EU). The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) has regularly reported on these issues since September 2015. This report highlights key trends and persistent concerns between October 2016 and December 2017. It focuses on five areas: access to territory, reception conditions, asylum procedures, unaccompanied children and immigration detention.
Challenges facing civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU
January
2018

Challenges facing civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU

Report
Civil society organisations in the European Union play a crucial role in promoting fundamental rights, but it has become harder for them to do so – due to both legal and practical restrictions. This report looks at the different types and patterns of challenges faced by civil society organisations working on human rights in the EU.
Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary
January
2018

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union - Summary

Summary
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
Child-friendly justice (Easy read)
January
2018

Child-friendly justice (Easy read)

Easy read publication
Inside this book you will read about the justice system and the problems in justice for children and how to fix the problems.
Together in the European Union (Easy read)
January
2018

Together in the European Union (Easy read)

Easy read publication
More than 20 million immigrants lived in the European Union in 2016. This means that 1 person in 25 was an immigrant. Having more immigrants and refugees makes it even more important for the governments to have plans to help them to integrate.
Violence against women (Easy read)
December
2017

Violence against women (Easy read)

Easy read publication
In this book you will read about laws against hurting women, what is wrong and what to do about it.
Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results
December
2017

Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Main results

Report
Seventeen years after adoption of EU laws that forbid discrimination, immigrants, descendants of immigrants, and minority ethnic groups continue to face widespread discrimination across the EU and in all areas of life – most often when seeking employment. For many, discrimination is a recurring experience. This is just one of the findings of FRA’s second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), which collected information from over 25,500 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all 28 EU Member States.
Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Technical report
December
2017

Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey - Technical report

Report
FRA’s Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey surveys around 26,000 individuals from different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all 28 EU Member States. This technical report presents a detailed overview of the research methods used by FRA when collecting the survey data.
Mapping minimum age requirements concerning the rights of the child in the EU
November
2017

Mapping minimum age requirements concerning the rights of the child in the EU

Online publication
International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The aim is to assist EU Member States in addressing these issues and to facilitate the EU in exercising its competence to support and coordinate Member States’ actions related to children and youth.
Challenges to women’s human rights in the EU
November
2017

Challenges to women’s human rights in the EU

Paper
Women and girls in the European Union (EU) experience persistent gender discrimination and gender-based violence, as evidence collected by FRA confirms. This severely limits the ability of women and girls to enjoy their rights and to participate on an equal footing in society. This FRA contribution to the third Annual Colloquium on Fundamental Rights ‘Women's rights in turbulent times’ looks at core human rights commitments. It balances these against selected evidence on gender discrimination, sexist hate speech and gender-based violence against women and girls in the EU.
Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU - Volume II: field perspectives and legal update
October
2017

Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU - Volume II: field perspectives and legal update

Report
This report is FRA’s second publication addressing a European Parliament request for in-depth research on the impact of surveillance on fundamental rights. It updates FRA’s 2015 legal analysis on the topic, and supplements that analysis with field-based insights gained from extensive interviews with diverse experts in intelligence and related fields, including its oversight.
From institutions to community living - Part I: commitments and structures
October
2017

From institutions to community living - Part I: commitments and structures

Report
Discussions are under way at the European Union (EU) and national levels about how best to realise the transition from institutional to community-based support. This report contributes to these by bringing together some of the key issues that have emerged from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ (FRA) human rights indicators on Member States’ political and practical commitment to deinstitutionalisation.
From institutions to community living - Part II: funding and budgeting
October
2017

From institutions to community living - Part II: funding and budgeting

Report
The transition from institution- to community-based support for persons with disabilities is a complex process that requires multifaceted efforts. These include putting in place commitments and structures for achieving deinstitutionalisation and measuring outcomes for persons with disabilities. This report shows that effectively funding the deinstitutionalisation process is a vital element.
Exploring the connections between arts and human rights - Meeting report
October
2017

Exploring the connections between arts and human rights - Meeting report

Conference Paper
The agency organised a high-level expert meeting in Vienna on 29-30 May 2017, bringing together participants from different EU Member States and horizons, including: human rights and fine arts academics; museum staff; curators; representatives of civil society organisations focusing on artistic freedom; and artists from the fields of photography, visual arts, comics, choreography, literature and music.
Current migration situation in the EU: Oversight of reception facilities
September
2017

Current migration situation in the EU: Oversight of reception facilities

Paper
This report assesses to which extent selected EU Member States have put in place mechanisms to ensure appropriate oversight and control of quality standards in reception facilities. Such oversight and control is essential for providing dignified and fundamental rights-compatible living conditions for asylum seekers.
Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Muslims – Selected findings
September
2017

Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Muslims – Selected findings

Report
Muslims living in the EU face discrimination in a broad range of settings – and particularly when looking for work, on the job, and when trying to access public or private services. The report examines how characteristics – such as an individual's first and last name, skin colour and the wearing of visible religious symbols like a headscarf, for example – may trigger discriminatory treatment and harassment.
How to better communicate common values, fundamental rights and freedoms – Meeting report
July
2017

How to better communicate common values, fundamental rights and freedoms – Meeting report

Conference Paper
In order to communicate well with the public, institutions need to communicate unlike institutions. They must acquire qualities of speed, agility, flexibility, imagination and novelty, and experiment boldly with new approaches, especially in the rapidly evolving sphere of social media. To this end, FRA brought together an unusually wide range of disciplines and professions to share experiences on how to better communicate fundamental rights and freedoms in a world that is growing increasingly intolerant.
Current migration situation in the EU: Community policing
June
2017

Current migration situation in the EU: Community policing

Paper
This report outlines examples of community policing measures in select EU Member State regions and localities with recently arrived asylum seekers and migrants. It focuses on four main issues: 1) community policing, 2) related police training, 3) community involvement (for example: consultations; giving voice to the concerns of local communities; police involvement in local responses to concerns), and 4) crime prevention activities.
European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children
June
2017

European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children

Report
Up to one third of migrants arriving in the European Union since the summer of 2015 have been children. The current emphasis on speedier asylum processing and making returns more effective may trigger increased use of immigration detention, possibly also affecting children. The detention of children implicates various fundamental rights and will only be in line with EU law if limited to exceptional cases. This report aims to support practitioners in implementing relevant polices in line with applicable law by outlining available safeguards against unlawful and arbitrary detention and highlighting promising practices.
Annual activity report 2016
June
2017

Annual activity report 2016

Annual report
This Consolidated Annual Activity Report (CAAR) provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) in 2016.
Fundamental Rights Report 2017
May
2017

Fundamental Rights Report 2017

Annual report
Diverse efforts at both EU and national levels sought to bolster fundamental rights protection in 2016, while some measures threatened to undermine such protection.
Fundamental Rights Report 2017 - FRA opinions
May
2017

Fundamental Rights Report 2017 - FRA opinions

Annual report
Diverse efforts at both EU and national levels sought to bolster fundamental rights protection in 2016, while some measures threatened to undermine such protection.
Current migration situation in the EU: Education
May
2017

Current migration situation in the EU: Education

Paper
This report assesses asylum seekers’ and refugees’ opportunities to access early childhood education and primary, secondary and tertiary education and training. It identifies measures available for their support, as well as possible areas for improvement.
Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives - Summary
April
2017

Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives - Summary

Summary
Hate crime is the most severe expression of discrimination and a core fundamental rights abuse. The European Union (EU) has demonstrated its resolve to tackle hate crime with legislation such as the 2008 Framework Decision on combating certain forms and expressions of racism and xenophobia by means of criminal law. Nonetheless, the majority of hate crimes perpetrated in the EU remain unreported and therefore invisible, leaving victims without redress.
Together in the EU - Promoting the participation of migrants and their descendants
March
2017

Together in the EU - Promoting the participation of migrants and their descendants

Report
Integrating migrants, refugees and their descendants is of critical importance for the future of the European Union. This report examines Member States’ integration policies and action plans for promoting their participation in society, focusing on non-discrimination, education, employment, language learning and political engagement.
Child-friendly justice - Checklist for professionals
February
2017

Child-friendly justice - Checklist for professionals

Toolkit
The treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern across the European Union (EU). With this checklist, FRA aims to help professionals by providing a list of actions that need to be taken for judicial proceedings to be child-friendly.
Child-friendly justice - Perspectives and experiences of children involved in judicial proceedings as victims, witnesses or parties in nine EU Member States
February
2017

Child-friendly justice - Perspectives and experiences of children involved in judicial proceedings as victims, witnesses or parties in nine EU Member States

Report
Around 2.5 million children participate in judicial proceedings across the European Union (EU) every year, affected by parental divorce or as victims of, or witnesses to, crime. Although their effective participation in such proceedings is vital for improving the operation of justice, the treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern. FRA investigated to what extent children’s rights to be heard, to be informed, to be protected, and to non-discrimination are fulfilled in practice.
Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2005-2015
December
2016

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2005-2015

Paper
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, property damage and graffiti or other forms of text, including on the internet. The present report relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are recorded by international organisations, and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 EU Member States.
Guidance on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in external border management when working in or together with third countries
December
2016

Guidance on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in external border management when working in or together with third countries

Paper
EU Member States are increasingly involved in border management activities on the high seas, within – or in cooperation with – third countries, and at the EU’s borders. Such activities entail risks of violating the principle of non-refoulement, the cornerstone of the international legal regime for the protection of refugees, which prohibits returning individuals to a risk of persecution. This guidance outlines specific suggestions on how to reduce the risk of refoulement in these situations – a practical tool developed with the input of experts during a meeting held in Vienna in March of 2016.
Scope of the principle of non-refoulement in contemporary border management: evolving areas of law
December
2016

Scope of the principle of non-refoulement in contemporary border management: evolving areas of law

Report
EU Member States are increasingly involved in border management activities on the high seas, within – or in cooperation with – third countries, and at the EU’s borders. Such activities entail risks of violating the principle of non-refoulement, the cornerstone of the international legal regime for the protection of refugees, which prohibits returning individuals to a risk of persecution. This report aims to encourage fundamental-rights compliant approaches to border management, including by highlighting potential grey areas.
Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma – Selected findings
November
2016

Second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey Roma – Selected findings

Report
Some 80% of Roma surveyed live below their country’s at-risk-of-poverty threshold; every third Roma lives in housing without tap water; every third Roma child lives in a household where someone went to bed hungry at least once in the previous month; and 50% of Roma between the ages of six and 24 do not attend school. This report underscores an unsettling but unavoidable reality: the European Union’s largest ethnic minority continues to face intolerable discrimination and unequal access to vital services.
Current migration situation in the EU: hate crime
November
2016

Current migration situation in the EU: hate crime

Paper
Asylum seekers and migrants face various forms of violence and harassment across the European Union (EU). As this month’s report on the migration situation underscores, such acts are both perpetrated and condoned by state authorities, private individuals, as well as vigilante groups. They increasingly also target activists and politicians perceived as ‘pro-refugee’.
Incitement in media content and political discourse in Member States of the European Union
November
2016

Incitement in media content and political discourse in Member States of the European Union

Paper
Media content and political discourse in EU Member States, whether online or offline, show incitement to discrimination, hatred or violence on different grounds, as evidence collected by FRA reveals. The growing reliance on the internet as the main source of information for many enables the fast spread of often unverified statements that could also incite to hatred.
Criminal detention and alternatives: fundamental rights aspects in EU cross-border transfers
November
2016

Criminal detention and alternatives: fundamental rights aspects in EU cross-border transfers

Report
EU Member States have largely implemented, and started applying, three instruments on transferring prison sentences, probation measures and alternative sanctions, as well as pre-trial supervision measures, to other Member States. This report provides an overview of their first experiences with these measures, highlighting both best practices and shortcomings.
Rights of suspected and accused persons across the EU: translation, interpretation and information
November
2016

Rights of suspected and accused persons across the EU: translation, interpretation and information

Report
Protecting the human rights of individuals subject to criminal proceedings is an essential element of the rule of law. Persons who are suspected or accused of crimes in countries other than their own are particularly vulnerable, making appropriate procedural safeguards especially crucial. This report reviews Member States’ legal frameworks, policies and practices regarding the important rights provided in these directives, including with respect to individuals whose needs may require additional attention, such as persons with disabilities and children.
Key migration issues: one year on from initial reporting
October
2016

Key migration issues: one year on from initial reporting

Paper
In view of the increasing numbers of refugees, asylum seekers and migrants entering the EU, the European Commission asked FRA to collect data about the fundamental rights situation of people arriving in those Member States that have been particularly affected by large migration movements. This month's focus section reviews persistent key issues since initial reporting began one year ago.
Fundamental Rights Forum - Chair's Statement
June
2016

Fundamental Rights Forum - Chair's Statement

Other
The Fundamental Rights Forum 2016 met in Vienna from 20-23 June 2016. Entitled Rights, Respect, Reality: the Europe of values in today’s world, it addressed the European Union’s pressing fundamental rights challenges. It also exchanged promising practices to better protect and promote human and fundamental rights in Europe. The Chair’s Statement captures the spirit and many of the suggestions made at the Forum.
Handbook on European law relating to access to justice
June
2016

Handbook on European law relating to access to justice

Handbook
Access to justice is an important element of the rule of law. It enables individuals to protect themselves against infringements of their rights, to remedy civil wrongs, to hold executive power accountable and to defend themselves in criminal proceedings. This handbook summarises the key European legal principles in the area of access to justice, focusing on civil and criminal law.
Annual activity report 2015
June
2016

Annual activity report 2015

Annual report
This consolidated annual activity report provides an overview of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) activities and achievements in 2015. It follows the guidelines of the EU Agencies Performance Development Network.
Fundamental Rights Report 2016
May
2016

Fundamental Rights Report 2016

Annual report
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen fundamental rights in 2015. Some of these efforts produced important progress; others fell short of their aims. Meanwhile, various global developments brought new – and exacerbated existing – challenges.
Fundamental Rights Report 2016 - FRA opinions
May
2016

Fundamental Rights Report 2016 - FRA opinions

Annual report
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen fundamental rights in 2015. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2016 summarises and analyses major developments in the fundamental rights field, noting both progress made and persisting obstacles. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the main developments in the thematic areas covered and a synopsis of the evidence supporting these opinions. In so doing, it provides a compact but informative overview of the main fundamental rights challenges confronting the EU and its Member States.
Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015
May
2016

Asylum and migration into the European Union in 2015

Annual report
This Focus takes a closer look at asylum and migration issues in the European Union (EU) in 2015. It looks at the effectiveness of measures taken or proposed by the EU and its Member States to manage this situation, with particular reference to their fundamental rights compliance.
Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives
April
2016

Ensuring justice for hate crime victims: professional perspectives

Report
Hate crime is the most severe expression of discrimination, and a core fundamental rights abuse. Various initiatives target such crime, but most hate crime across the EU remains unreported and unprosecuted, leaving victims without redress. To counter this trend, it is essential for Member States to improve access to justice for victims. Drawing on interviews with representatives from criminal courts, public prosecutors’ offices, the police, and NGOs involved in supporting hate crime victims, this report sheds light on the diverse hurdles that impede victims’ access to justice and the proper recording of hate crime.
Severe labour exploitation: workers moving within or into the European Union - Summary
March
2016

Severe labour exploitation: workers moving within or into the European Union - Summary

Summary
Worker exploitation is not an isolated or marginal phenomenon. But despite its pervasiveness in everyday life, severe labour exploitation and its adverse effects on third-country nationals and EU citizens – as workers, but also as consumers – have to date not received much attention from researchers. This report identifies risk factors contributing to such exploitation and discusses means of improving the situation and highlights the challenges EU institutions and Member States face in making the right of workers who have moved within or into the EU to decent working conditions a reality.
Professionally speaking: challenges to achieving equality for LGBT people
March
2016

Professionally speaking: challenges to achieving equality for LGBT people

Report
The fundamental rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are often not respected across the EU. Public officials and other professionals in education, healthcare and law enforcement are entrusted with the duty to ensure that everyone’s fundamental rights are protected and promoted.
FRA national stakeholders meeting report
January
2016

FRA national stakeholders meeting report

Conference Paper
This meeting report summarises the key discussions and outcomes resulting from FRA's first-ever meeting of this kind where the content and process both focused on the conditions for, and examples of, successful collaboration.
Protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in the EU – Comparative legal analysis – Update 2015
December
2015

Protection against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation, gender identity and sex characteristics in the EU – Comparative legal analysis – Update 2015

Report
While awareness of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons is on the rise across the European Union, hurdles to their full enjoyment of their fundamental rights remain. This report updates FRA’s 2010 report on homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Violence against  children with disabilities
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities

Easy read publication
This book will tell you about violence and children with disabilities. It looks at violence, where it happens, and why people are violent.
Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU

Report
Children with disabilities face significant barriers to enjoying their fundamental rights. They are often excluded from society, sometimes living in facilities far from their families. They are also denied access to basic services, such as health care and education, and endure stigma and discrimination, as well as sexual, physical and psychological violence. FRA scrutinised the important but underreported issue of violence against children with disabilities, carrying out desk research and conducting interviews with knowledgeable stakeholders. This report presents the results of that research.
Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU - Summary
December
2015

Violence against children with disabilities: legislation, policies and programmes in the EU - Summary

Summary
Children with disabilities face significant barriers to enjoying their fundamental rights. They are often excluded from society, sometimes living in facilities far from their families. They are also denied access to basic services, such as health care and education, and endure stigma and discrimination, as well as sexual, physical and psychological violence. This summary report outlines relevant international and European standards and reviews national legislation and policies addressing violence against children with disabilities. The summary also explores the extent and different causes, settings and forms of such violence, and presents measures and initiatives to prevent it.
Handbook on European law relating to the rights of the child
November
2015

Handbook on European law relating to the rights of the child

Handbook
Children are full-fledged holders of rights. They are beneficiaries of all human and fundamental rights and subjects of special regulations, given their specific characteristics. This handbook aims to illustrate how European law and case law accommodate the specific interests and needs of children.
Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU - Summary
November
2015

Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU - Summary

Summary
In April 2014, the European Parliament requested the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) “to undertake in–depth research on the protection of fundamental rights in the context of surveillance”. This summary presents FRA’s main research findings, which are published in full in the report entitled Surveillance by intelligence services: fundamental rights safeguards and remedies in the EU – Mapping Member States’ legal frameworks.
Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union
October
2015

Guardianship systems for children deprived of parental care in the European Union

Report
This report explores the key features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in human beings or of other forms of exploitation. The research covers four specific areas, namely the type of guardianship systems in place, the profile of appointed guardians, the appointment procedures, and the tasks of the guardians.
October
2015

Alternatives to detention for asylum seekers and people in return procedures

Paper
For asylum and return (i.e. expulsion) procedures to be implemented effectively, people need to be at the disposal of the authorities so that any measure requiring their presence can be taken without delay. To achieve this, EU Member States may decide to hold people in closed facilities. Less intrusive measures, which are usually referred to as alternatives to detention, reduce the risk that deprivation of liberty is resorted to excessively.
Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2004-2014
September
2015

Antisemitism - Overview of data available in the European Union 2004-2014

Paper
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, property damage, graffiti or other forms of text, including on the internet. This report relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are recorded by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States.
Promoting respect and diversity - Combating intolerance and hate
September
2015

Promoting respect and diversity - Combating intolerance and hate

Paper
Regardless of ethnic origin, religion or belief, everyone living in the Union has a fundamental right to be treated equally, to be respected and to be protected from violence. This contribution paper to the Annual Colloquium on Fundamental Rights provides evidence of the fact that such respect is lacking, and suggests ways in which governments can ensure they fulfil their duty to safeguard this right for everyone living in the EU.
Cost of exclusion from healthcare – The case of migrants in an irregular situation
September
2015

Cost of exclusion from healthcare – The case of migrants in an irregular situation

Report
This report aims to estimate the economic cost of providing timely access to screening and treatment for migrants in an irregular situation, compared with providing treatment only in emergency cases. It presents an economic model to calculate such costs for two medical conditions: hypertension and prenatal care. To better illustrate its application in practice, the model is applied to three European Union (EU) Member States – Germany, Greece and Sweden.
Cost of exclusion from healthcare – The case of migrants in an irregular situation – Summary
September
2015

Cost of exclusion from healthcare – The case of migrants in an irregular situation – Summary

Summary
The right to health is a basic social right. However, its understanding and application differs across the European Union (EU) Member States, which results in different healthcare services being offered to migrants in an irregular situation. This summary looks into the potential costs of providing migrants in an irregular situation with timely access to health screening and treatment, compared to providing medical treatment only in emergency cases.
Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2014 - Annual report
June
2015

Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2014 - Annual report

Annual report
European Union (EU) Member States and institutions introduced a number of legal and policy measures in 2014 to safeguard fundamental rights in the EU. Notwithstanding these efforts, a great deal remains to be done, and it can be seen that the situation in some areas is alarming: the number of migrants rescued or apprehended at sea as they were trying to reach Europe’s borders quadrupled over 2013; more than a quarter of children in the EU are at risk of poverty or social exclusion; and an increasing number of political parties use xenophobic and anti-immigrant rhetoric in their campaigns, potentially increasing some people’s vulnerability to becoming victims of crime or hate crime.
Annual activity report 2014
June
2015

Annual activity report 2014

Annual report
This consolidated annual activity report provides an overview of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) activities and achievements in 2014. It follows the guidelines of the EU Agencies Performance Development Network.
Severe labour exploitation: workers moving within or into the European Union
June
2015

Severe labour exploitation: workers moving within or into the European Union

Report
Worker exploitation is not an isolated or marginal phenomenon. But despite its pervasiveness in everyday life, severe labour exploitation and its adverse effects on third-country nationals and EU citizens – as workers, but also as consumers – have to date not received much attention from researchers.
Being Trans in the EU – Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data – Summary
May
2015

Being Trans in the EU – Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data – Summary

Summary
Trans persons, or those whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex assigned them at birth, face frequent discrimination, harassment and violence across the European Union (EU) today. This reality triggers fears that persuade many to hide or disguise their true selves. This report examines issues of equal treatment and discrimination on two grounds, namely sexual orientation and gender identity.
The fundamental rights situation of intersex people
May
2015

The fundamental rights situation of intersex people

Paper
This paper examines the legal situation of intersex people from a fundamental rights perspective. It draws on evidence from the Agency’s updated legal analysis on homophobia, transphobia, and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity, which now includes a section on intersex issues.
Implementing the UN CRPD: An overview of legal reforms in EU Member States
May
2015

Implementing the UN CRPD: An overview of legal reforms in EU Member States

Paper
A new Focus paper by the EU Agency of Fundamental Rights (FRA) outlines how Member States across the EU have reformed their laws and policies to meet their obligations under the CRPD. By bringing together examples of such reforms, it also highlights how the adoption of international commitments can drive wide-ranging processes of change at the national level.
Child-friendly justice – Perspectives and experiences of professionals on children’s participation in civil and criminal judicial proceedings in 10 EU Member States
May
2015

Child-friendly justice – Perspectives and experiences of professionals on children’s participation in civil and criminal judicial proceedings in 10 EU Member States

Report
Each year thousands of children take part in criminal and civil judicial proceedings, affected by parental divorce or as victims or witnesses to crime. Such proceedings can be stressful for anyone. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) investigated whether children’s rights are respected in these proceedings.
Child-friendly justice – perspectives and experiences of professionals – Summary
May
2015

Child-friendly justice – perspectives and experiences of professionals – Summary

Summary
Making justice systems more child‑friendly improves the protection of children, enhances their meaningful participation and at the same time improves the operation of justice. The findings in this summary can provide Member States with useful tools to identify barriers, gaps or weaknesses in their judicial proceedings, especially in the process of transposing and implementing relevant EU directives. Also available in BG - CS - DA - DE - EL - ES - ET - FI - FR - HR - HU - IT - LV - LT - MT - PL - PT - RO - SK - SK - SV
Legal entry channels to the EU for persons in need of international protection: a toolbox
March
2015

Legal entry channels to the EU for persons in need of international protection: a toolbox

Paper
Every year, tens of thousands of people risk their lives trying to enter the European Union (EU) in an irregular way, and many die in the attempt. Increasing the availability of legal avenues to reach the EU would contribute to make the right to asylum set forth in Article 18 of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights a reality for vulnerable refugees and other persons in need of protection who are staying in a third country, often facing risks to their safety. It would also help to fight smuggling in human beings. This FRA focus seeks to contribute towards the elaboration of such legal entry options so that these can constitute a viable alternative to risky irregular entry.
Embedding fundamental rights in the security agenda
February
2015

Embedding fundamental rights in the security agenda

Paper
The recent events in Paris have challenged our sense of safety. They come at a time when the European Union is in the course of discussing its priorities in the area of internal security for the next five years. This paper examines the ways in which a fundamental rights perspective can benefit the current debate, so that a fundamental rights-anchored approach can support the creation of legitimate, effective and sustainable law enforcement and counter-radicalisation measures.
Reactions to the Paris attacks in the EU: fundamental rights considerations
February
2015

Reactions to the Paris attacks in the EU: fundamental rights considerations

Paper
The events that took place in France and Belgium in January 2015 had tremendous impact across the European Union (EU) and beyond. In the immediate aftermath of the events in Paris, FRA collected responses across Europe, focusing on Jewish and Muslim community organisations, political leaders, civil society and the media. The current paper provides an overview of this material and should be regarded as a snapshot of a rapidly changing situation.
Victims of crime in the EU: the extent and nature of support for victims - Summary
February
2015

Victims of crime in the EU: the extent and nature of support for victims - Summary

Summary
This summary outlines the research findings of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) on support services for victims of crime across the EU from a fundamental rights perspective. It gives an overview of how current victim support service provision across the 28 EU Member States compares in practice with the objectives and goals for victim support set out by the Victims’ Directive. The focus is on the directive’s Articles 8 and 9 on support services, although other closely related provisions are also considered.
Mapping child protection systems in the EU
February
2015

Mapping child protection systems in the EU

Online publication
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), at the request of the European Commission, conducted research on national child protection systems in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States. It seeks to understand how national child protection systems work and to identify common challenges and promising practices.
Victims of crime in the EU: the extent and nature of support for victims
January
2015

Victims of crime in the EU: the extent and nature of support for victims

Report
The rights of victims of crime to access justice and to be protected against repeat victimisation may remain illusory in practice if the victim fails to receive professional advice and support. This research by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) examines support service provision for such victims across the 28 EU Member States, in line with the 2012 EU Victims’ Directive. It focuses not on abstract fundamental rights standards but on the final practical results.
Being Trans in the EU - Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data
December
2014

Being Trans in the EU - Comparative analysis of the EU LGBT survey data

Report
Trans persons, or those whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from the sex assigned them at birth, face frequent discrimination, harassment and violence across the European Union (EU) today. This reality triggers fears that persuade many to hide or disguise their true selves. This report examines issues of equal treatment and discrimination on two grounds, namely sexual orientation and gender identity. It analyses data on the experiences of 6,579 trans respondents from the EU Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) survey, the largest body of empirical evidence of its kind to date.
Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points
November
2014

Fundamental rights at land borders: findings from selected European Union border crossing points

Report
Together with two FRA sister reports on the EU’s air and southern sea borders, this report’s findings serve to inform EU and Member State practitioners and policy makers of fundamental rights challenges that can emerge at land borders. Increased awareness should also help to create a shared understanding among border guards of what fundamental obligations mean for their daily work, ultimately enhancing fundamental rights compliance at the EU’s external borders.
Discrimination against and living conditions of Roma women in 11 EU Member States
October
2014

Discrimination against and living conditions of Roma women in 11 EU Member States

Report
Equality is one of the five values on which the European Union (EU) is founded; yet women here face inequalities in many respects. Extreme poverty, exclusion and discrimination burden Roma women even further. The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) researched the situation of Roma women in 11 EU Member States.
Education: the situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States
October
2014

Education: the situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States

Report
This report examines the results of the European Union Agency’s for Fundamental Rights (FRA) 2011 Roma survey on education, which show that considerable gaps between Roma and non‑Roma children persist at all educational levels.
Poverty and employment: the situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States
October
2014

Poverty and employment: the situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States

Report
This report presents the results of the European Union Agency’s for Fundamental Rights (FRA) 2011 Roma survey on poverty and employment, which show, for example, that although most Roma are actively seeking a job, only about a third of those surveyed has paid work, which is often precarious and informal. It reveals multiple challenges:very low employment rates were observed, in particular for young Roma.
Addressing forced marriage in the EU: legal provisions and promising practices
October
2014

Addressing forced marriage in the EU: legal provisions and promising practices

Paper
Primarily using data and information collected from five EU Member States, this paper briefly describes the phenomenon of forced marriage and selected legislative measures taken to address it. It lists promising practices for the prevention of forced marriage and for supporting victims. The paper covers only one among many forms of violence against women analysed by FRA in its Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report (2014).
Fundamental rights: key legal and policy developments in 2013. Highlights 2013
July
2014

Fundamental rights: key legal and policy developments in 2013. Highlights 2013

Annual report
The EU and its Member States took a variety of important steps in 2013 to protect and promote fundamental rights by assuming new international commitments, revamping legislation and pursuing innovative policies on the ground. Yet, fundamental rights violations seized the spotlight with distressing frequency: would‑be migrants drowning off the EU’s coast, unprecedented mass surveillance, racist and extremist‑motivated murders, child poverty and Roma deprivation.
Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration
June
2014

Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration

Handbook
The Handbook on European law relating to asylum, borders and immigration is jointly produced by the European Court of Human Rights and the FRA. It examines the relevant law in the field of asylum, borders and immigration stemming from both European systems: the European Union and the Council of Europe. It provides an accessible guide to the various European standards relevant to asylum, borders and immigration.
Annual activity report 2013
June
2014

Annual activity report 2013

Annual report
FRA’s Annual activity report 2013 summarises the agency’s activities carried out over the past year in light of its key performance indicators. The report’s annexes outline the agency’s performance measurement framework, as well as its main achievements by project in 2013.
Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2013 - Annual report 2013
June
2014

Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2013 - Annual report 2013

Annual report
This year’s FRA annual report looks at fundamental rights-related developments in asylum, immigration and integration; border control and visa policy; information society, respect for private life and data protection; the rights of the child and the protection of children; equality and non-discrimination; racism, xenophobia and related intolerance; access to justice and judicial cooperation; rights of crime victims; EU Member States and international obligations.
Handbook on European data protection law - 2014 edition
June
2014

Handbook on European data protection law - 2014 edition

Handbook
This handbook is designed to familiarise legal practitioners who are not specialised in the field of data protection with this area of law. It provides an overview of the EU’s and the CoE’s applicable legal frameworks.
The right to political participation for persons with disabilities: human rights indicators
May
2014

The right to political participation for persons with disabilities: human rights indicators

Report
The opportunity to be involved in political life, whether by standing for elected office, joining a political party, or following political news stories in the media, is at the heart of what it means to live in a democratic society. The report analyses data on the situation of political participation of persons with disabilities collected from across the 28 European Union (EU) Member States by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the European Commission-funded Academic Network of European Disability Experts (ANED).
The right to political participation of persons with disabilities - Summary
April
2014

The right to political participation of persons with disabilities - Summary

Summary
The report analyses data on the situation of political participation of persons with disabilities collected from across the 28 European Union (EU) Member States by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the European Commission-funded Academic Network of European Disability Experts (ANED).
Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report
March
2014

Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report

Report
This FRA survey is the first of its kind on violence against women across the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU). It is based on interviews with 42,000 women across the EU, who were asked about their experiences of physical, sexual and psychological violence, including incidents of intimate partner violence (‘domestic violence’).
Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Results at a glance
March
2014

Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Results at a glance

Summary
Violence against women undermines women’s core fundamental rights such as dignity, access to justice and gender equality. For example, one in three women has experienced physical and/or sexual violence since the age of 15; one in five women has experienced stalking; every second woman has been confronted with one or more forms of sexual harassment.
Violence against women: an EU‑wide survey
March
2014

Violence against women: an EU‑wide survey

Factsheet
This factsheet presents some examples of survey findings, which are placed alongside general considerations as possible ‘ways forward’ for responding to violence against women.
Access to data protection remedies in EU Member States
January
2014

Access to data protection remedies in EU Member States

Report
Technological advances make it ever more important to safeguard the right to personal data, which is enshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Data protection violations arise principally from internet‑based activities, direct marketing and video surveillance, perpetrated by, for example, government bodies or financial and health institutions, research by the European Union Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) shows.
Fundamental rights in the future of the European Union’s Justice and Home Affairs
December
2013

Fundamental rights in the future of the European Union’s Justice and Home Affairs

Paper
In this paper, FRA looks at the overall institutional framework of the EU fundamental rights policy. Some of the proposals it contains include introducing an EU ‘fundamental rights policy cycle’ and a ‘European fundamental rights information system’. It also discusses the most pertinent fundamental rights elements in other policy areas of freedom, security and justice.
Fundamental rights-based police training – A manual for police trainers
December
2013

Fundamental rights-based police training – A manual for police trainers

Toolkit
Police officers who ensure that people are able to exercise their fundamental rights and freedoms earn the respect and trust of the public. With this in mind, this manual sets out to foster such human rights-based police work by integrating human rights training into the heart of police training, in line with the European Union’s goals in the field of justice and home affairs.
Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism
November
2013

Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism

Report
This FRA survey is the first-ever to collect comparable data on Jewish people’s experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, hate-motivated crime and discrimination across a number of EU Member States, specifically in Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Its findings reveal a worrying level of discrimination, particularly in employment and education, a widespread fear of victimisation and heightening concern about antisemitism online.
Jewish people's experience of discrimination and hate crime in European Union Member States
November
2013

Jewish people's experience of discrimination and hate crime in European Union Member States

Factsheet
Jewish people across the European Union (EU) continue to face insults, discrimination, harassment and even physical violence which, despite concerted efforts by both the EU and its Member States, show no signs of fading into the past. Although many important rights are guaranteed legally, widespread and long-standing prejudice continues to hinder Jewish people’s chances to enjoy these rights in reality.
Antisemitism: Summary overview of the situation in the European Union 2001–2012
November
2013

Antisemitism: Summary overview of the situation in the European Union 2001–2012

Paper
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats, harassment, property damage, graffiti or other forms of text, including hate speech on the internet. The present report – the ninth update of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) overview of Manifestations of antisemitism in the EU – relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are recorded by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European Union (EU) Member States.
Technical report: FRA survey - Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism
November
2013

Technical report: FRA survey - Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism

Report
The FRA survey is the first-ever to collect comparable data on Jewish people’s experiences and perceptions of antisemitism, hate-motivated crime and discrimination across a number of EU Member States, specifically in Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Sweden and the United Kingdom. This technical report gives an overview of the survey methodology, sample and the questionnaire.
Analysis of FRA Roma survey results by gender
September
2013

Analysis of FRA Roma survey results by gender

Paper
This paper provides an analysis of data collected through FRA’s Roma Survey broken down by gender and covering the core areas of employment, education, housing and health, as well as any other gender‐sensitive policy areas. The paper is the result of a request made by the President of the European Parliament to the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) on 27 June 2013.
Laws about being able to make important decisions for yourself
September
2013

Laws about being able to make important decisions for yourself

Easy read publication
This book will tell you about at laws in the European Union. These laws are about being allowed to make important decisions for yourself. This is called legal capacity. Legal capacity means that you are allowed to make important decisions for yourself.
Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders - Summary
August
2013

Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders - Summary

Summary
This FRA report examines the conditions at Europe’s southern sea borders with respect to the most fundamental rights of a person, the right to life and the right not to be sent back to torture, persecution or inhuman treatment. It looks at sea border surveillance and disembarkation procedures, as well as general issues such as European Union (EU) policy, training and Frontex-coordinated operations, and examines practices across the EU Member States researched – Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.
EU solidarity and Frontex: fundamental rights challenges
August
2013

EU solidarity and Frontex: fundamental rights challenges

Report
The majority of irregular arrivals by sea to the European Union (EU) occur in the Mediterranean. Although the phenomenon is not widespread throughout the EU, it affects the EU as a whole. This publication reviews the solidarity measures the EU has established to support those countries most affected by irregular arrivals by sea. It will focus on the fundamental rights challenges raised by such measures but will not discuss whether these measures are sufficient and adequate for genuinely sharing the costs associated with the arrivals. This publication will also touch upon EU funding instruments and intra-EU relocation from Malta and more thoroughly describe the operational cooperation with Frontex.
Promoting the rule of law in the European Union - FRA Symposium report
July
2013

Promoting the rule of law in the European Union - FRA Symposium report

Conference Paper
The 2013 FRA Symposium took place on 7 June in Vienna, and aimed at providing a platform to discuss and exchange ideas on the promotion of the rule of law in the EU. This report provides a summary of the discussions and working groups and presents the conclusions and possible next steps identified by each working group.
Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2012
June
2013

Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2012

Annual report
Against a backdrop of rising unemployment and increased deprivation, this FRA Annual report closely examines the situation of those, such as children, who are vulnerable to budget cuts, impacting important fields such as education, healthcare and social services. It looks at the discrimination that Roma continue to face and the mainstreaming of elements of extremist ideology in political and public discourse. It considers the impact the crises have had on the basic principle of the rule of law, as well as stepped up EU Member State efforts to ensure trust in justice systems.
Annual Activity Report 2012
June
2013

Annual Activity Report 2012

Annual report
The founding regulation envisages that every year an annual report on activities has to be prepared and published.
Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders
March
2013

Fundamental rights at Europe’s southern sea borders

Report
This FRA report examines the conditions at Europe’s southern sea borders with respect to the most fundamental rights of a person, the right to life and the right not to be sent back to torture, persecution or inhuman treatment. It looks at sea border surveillance and disembarkation procedures, as well as training and Frontex-coordinated operations. It examines practices across the EU Member States researched – Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta and Spain.
Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare
March
2013

Inequalities and multiple discrimination in access to and quality of healthcare

Report
Certain people are seen as particularly vulnerable to unequal treatment, because they share a combination of characteristics that may trigger discrimination. A Roma woman sterilised without her informed consent, for example, has suffered discrimination not just because of her sex, as all women do not face this treatment, nor just because she is Roma, as Roma men may not face this treatment. The discriminatory treatment is based specifically on the intersection of her sex and ethnic origin.
Access to justice in cases of discrimination in the EU – Steps to further equality
December
2012

Access to justice in cases of discrimination in the EU – Steps to further equality

Report
The principle of non-discrimination is firmly established in European Union (EU) legislation and includes provisions relating to access to justice. This report examines the process of seeking redress in cases of discrimination. It provides a detailed analysis of what the EU Member State bodies that deal with cases of discrimination do to support possible victims of discrimination and to offer them redress. It examines the factors obstructing effective remedies, such as the complexity of the complaints system, which discourage people from bringing cases and reinforce victims’ feelings of helplessness
December
2012

Victim support services in the EU: an overview and assessment of victims’ rights in practice

Factsheet
The European Union (EU) and its Member States have undertaken many legislative and non-legislative initiatives in recent years to improve the situation of victims of crime, while work to promote the rights of victims is still ongoing. Some of the key concerns in the field include the role of the victim in criminal proceedings and facilitating access to criminal justice systems: in other words, ensuring that victims are recognised as persons with rights. These rights should be respected and safeguarded by the criminal justice system.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 6: Minorities as Victims of Crime
November
2012

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 6: Minorities as Victims of Crime

Report
This EU-MIDIS Data in focus report 6 presents data on respondents’ experiences of victimisation across five crime types: theft of or from a vehicle; burglary or attempted burglary; theft of personal property not involving force or threat (personal theft); assault or threat; and serious harassment. The European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS) is the first EU-wide survey to ask 23,500 individuals with an ethnic and minority background about their experiences of discrimination and criminal victimisation in everyday life.
Hate crime in the European Union
November
2012

Hate crime in the European Union

Factsheet
Despite EU Member States’ efforts to combat discrimination and intolerance, including hate crime, there are indications that the situation is not improving. Continued and renewed violations of the fundamental rights of people living within the EU have instead been witnessed over the past few years, through verbal abuse, physical attacks or even murders motivated by prejudice.
Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims' rights
November
2012

Making hate crime visible in the European Union: acknowledging victims' rights

Report
Discrimination and intolerance persist in the European Union (EU) despite the best efforts of Member States to root them out, FRA research shows. Verbal abuse, physical attacks and murders motivated by prejudice target EU society in all its diversity, from visible minorities to those with disabilities. This FRA report is designed to help the EU and its Member States to tackle these fundamental rights violations both by making them more visible and bringing perpetrators to account.
Handbook on the establishment and accreditation of National Human Rights Institutions in the European Union
October
2012

Handbook on the establishment and accreditation of National Human Rights Institutions in the European Union

Handbook
National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) protect and promote human rights at the national level, tackling systemic problems and raising fundamental rights awareness. To equip NHRIs to perform their role well, they should have, among other qualities, independence, powers and a broad mandate, in accordance with the so-called ‘Paris Principles’ which were adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993 and set forth the primary minimum standards for an effective NHRI.
Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2011
June
2012

Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2011

Annual report
To secure and safeguard the fundamental rights of everyone in the European Union (EU), the EU and its 27 Member States pressed forward with a number of initiatives in 2011. This report chronicles the positive developments made in 2011 as well as the challenges facing the EU and its Member States in the field of fundamental rights.
June
2012

Fundamental rights: key legal and policy developments in 2011

Summary
This year‘s summary of the FRA Annual report – Highlights 2011 – chronicles the positive developments made in 2011 as well as the challenges facing the EU and its Member States in the field of fundamental rights, drawing on objective, reliable and comparable socio-legal data.
Choice and control: the right to independent living
June
2012

Choice and control: the right to independent living

Report
This report examines how persons with intellectual disabilities and persons with mental health problems in nine EU Member States experience autonomy, inclusion and participation in their lives.
Choice and control: the right to independent living - Summary report
June
2012

Choice and control: the right to independent living - Summary report

Summary
This summary report outlines the findings of interview-based research carried out in 2010 and 2011 in nine EU Member States with persons with mental health problems and persons with intellectual disabilities. The research examined how they experience the principles of autonomy, inclusion and participation in their day-to-day lives.
The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States - Survey results at a glance
May
2012

The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States - Survey results at a glance

Report
Roma - Europe's largest minority of 10-12 million people - continue to experience discrimination and social exclusion; and they are not sufficiently aware of their rights guaranteed by EU law, such as the Racial Equality Directive. This report presents the first results of the FRA Roma pilot survey and the UNDP/World Bank/European Commission regional Roma survey carried out in 2011.
May
2012

The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States - Survey results at a glance

Factsheet
This factsheet presents the first results of the surveys based on an analysis of only part of the available data. The results presented are a first step in addressing the severe lack of data on the socio-economic situation of Roma in the EU and the fulfilment of their rights.
January
2012

Combating racial discrimination

Factsheet
The Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC), adopted in 2000, has made important changes to the way that racial discrimination is combated in the European Union. Only a handful of EU Member States already had detailed laws and mechanisms to prohibit racial discrimination before the directive was adopted; the vast majority have had to make significant improvements to comply with the directive.
The Racial Equality Directive: application and challenges
January
2012

The Racial Equality Directive: application and challenges

Report
The Racial Equality Directive (2000/43/EC) is the key piece of EU legislation for combating discrimination on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin and for giving effect to the principle of equal treatment. The present report discusses the application of the directive through the laws and practices in the 27 EU Member States.
Fundamental Rights Conference 2011 - Summary conclusions by the FRA
December
2011

Fundamental Rights Conference 2011 - Summary conclusions by the FRA

Conference Paper
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights held its annual Fundamental Rights Conference 'Dignity and rights of irregular migrants' in Warsaw on 21-22 November 2011. This paper summarises the discussions that took place during the conference and presents follow-up activities to be undertaken by FRA.
FRA postcard
November
2011

FRA postcard

Other
Overview of the role and activities of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. 
Factsheet: Gender-based violence against women – an EU-wide survey
October
2011

Factsheet: Gender-based violence against women – an EU-wide survey

Factsheet
In 2011—2012, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) will conduct an EU-wide survey on violence against women. This is the first survey of its kind to randomly sample and interview 40,000 women across the 27 EU Member States and Croatia. It will therefore furnish the robust, comparable data that policy makers need to shape informed, targeted policies to combat such violence.
Respect for and protection of persons belonging to minorities 2008-2010
September
2011

Respect for and protection of persons belonging to minorities 2008-2010

Report
This report examines what the Treaty of Lisbon means for the protection of minorities, and the policies the EU has recently adopted in this field. It provides evidence of the still persistent phenomenon of discrimination found in many areas of life, including employment, housing, healthcare and education.
The FRA disability project postcard
September
2011

The FRA disability project postcard

Other
Under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), people with disabilities are no longer being considered as being unable to play an active role in society. Instead of people with disabilities being viewed as the problems, the barriers they face are clearly recognised as being the source of the problem.
FRA research: providing robust, comparable data and analysis
August
2011

FRA research: providing robust, comparable data and analysis

Factsheet
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) provides "assistance and expertise on fundamental rights to the relevant institutions and authorities of the Community and its Member States," in line with its founding regulation 168/2007.
Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the EU Member States
June
2011

Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in the EU Member States

Report
The European Union (EU) is founded on the values of equality and non-discrimination, and through its policies works to combat discrimination, including discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. This report of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) twins its research findings in the field with the relevant EU standards in a short and easy-to-read publication designed to equip those who shape policy with the information they need to develop a coherent and systematic approach to the protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transsexual (LGBT) rights.
Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2010
June
2011

Fundamental rights: challenges and achievements in 2010

Annual report
2010 marked the first year the European Union (EU) operated on the basis of a legally binding bill of rights - the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. This year's annual report of the European Agency for Fundamental Rights puts the spotlight on the achievements and challenges of the EU and its Member States as they strive to inject robust life into their fundamental rights commitments.
June
2011

Fundamental rights: key legal and policy developments in 2010

Summary
2010 marked the first year the European Union (EU) operated on the basis of a legally binding bill of rights – the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU. This year’s summary of the annual report of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights puts the spotlight on selected key political and legal developments in the EU and its Member States as they strive to inject robust life into their fundamental rights commitments.
March
2011

Access to justice in Europe

Factsheet
According to international and European human rights law, EU Member States must guarantee everyone the right to go to court, or to an alternative dispute resolution body, and to obtain a remedy when their rights are violated. This factsheet provides information on access to justice, focusing on non-discrimination law, excluding criminal law.
Access to justice in Europe: an overview of challenges and opportunities
March
2011

Access to justice in Europe: an overview of challenges and opportunities

Report
This report provides an EU-wide comparative analysis of the effectiveness of access to justice, across the EU Member States. Launched on 23 March at the conference "Protecting victims in the EU: the road ahead" hosted in Budapest by the Hungarian Presidency of the Council of the EU with the support of the FRA, the report emphasises obstacles making it difficult for victims to enforce their rights.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 5: Multiple discrimination
February
2011

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 5: Multiple discrimination

Report
The Fundamental Rights Agency publishes its first report on multiple discrimination: EU-MIDIS Data in Focus 5: ‘Multiple Discrimination' which focuses on perceptions of multiple discrimination experiences by respondents of ethnic or immigrant origin, compared with the general population.
December
2010

Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States

Summary
The arrival of thousands of separated children in the European Union from third countries poses a serious challenge to EU institutions and Member States, since, according to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, they have a duty to care for and protect children. This summary highlights the key findings of the FRA research on separated, asylum-seeking children in EU Member States.
Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States
December
2010

Separated, asylum-seeking children in European Union Member States

Report
The arrival of thousands of separated children in the European Union from third countries poses a serious challenge to EU institutions and Member States, since, according to the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, they have a duty to care for and protect children. This report examines the experiences and views of 336 separated, asylum-seeking children and those of 302 adults responsible for their care across 12 EU Member States.
Detention of third country nationals in return procedures
November
2010

Detention of third country nationals in return procedures

Report
The Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) examined law and practice in the EU 27 on the deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants pending their removal against the applicable international human rights law framework.
November
2010

Detention of third-country nationals in return procedures

Factsheet
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights examined law and practice in the EU 27 on the deprivation of liberty of irregular migrants pending their removal against the applicable international human rights law framework.
Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity
November
2010

Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity

Report
This report updates the FRA comparative legal analysis of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity first published in June 2008. It presents the situation as it stood at the end of 2009, though information gathered in 2010 has been incorporated to the greatest possible extent. Five main trends among EU Member States can be noted from the information presented in this report.
November
2010

Key legal trends in the protection of LGBT rights in the European Union 2008-2010

Factsheet
In 2007, the European Parliament requested the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) to conduct research on discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons. In 2008, the FRA published its first comparative legal analysis on homophobia, transphobia and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity in the European Union. This factsheet outlines the key legal trends resulting from the updated legal analysis that the FRA undertook in 2010.
November
2010

Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) rights in the European Union

Factsheet
Developments over the past years testify to the increasing awareness of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons in the European Union. This factsheet presents the policy context and key findings of the FRA report on Homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity.
Excursion to the past - teaching for the future: handbook for teachers
November
2010

Excursion to the past - teaching for the future: handbook for teachers

Report
To mark the 2010 anniversary of "the night of the broken glass", the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) publishes a handbook for teachers: Excursion to the past - teaching for the future. The handbook emphasises the link between teaching about the Holocaust and other Nazi crimes, and teaching about human rights and democracy.
October
2010

Racism, ethnic discrimination and social exclusion in sport

Factsheet
This factsheet gives a brief description the policy context and key findings of the report Racism, ethnic discrimination and exclusion of migrants and minorities in sport: a comparative overview of the situation in the EU.
Experience of discrimination, social marginalisation and violence: A comparative study of Muslim and non-Muslim youth in three EU Member States
October
2010

Experience of discrimination, social marginalisation and violence: A comparative study of Muslim and non-Muslim youth in three EU Member States

Report
Social marginalisation and discrimination have severe consequences for any society – both need to be addressed as a priority, as they are directly linked to violent behaviour in young people. This research shows a high degree of overlap between three EU Member States when considering explanatory factors to violent attitudes or acts of violence committed by young people.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 4: Police Stops and Minorities
October
2010

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 4: Police Stops and Minorities

Report
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus report 4 focuses on the experiences of police stops of the 23 500 individuals with an ethnic minority or immigrant background interviewed as part of the survey. The report also contains results showing levels of trust in the police from the EU-MIDIS Survey.
Towards More Effective Policing, Understanding and preventing discriminatory ethnic profiling: A guide
October
2010

Towards More Effective Policing, Understanding and preventing discriminatory ethnic profiling: A guide

Report
When a decision to stop an individual is motivated solely or mainly by virtue of a person's race, ethnicity or religion, this constitutes discriminatory ethnic profiling. Such practices can serve to alienate certain communities in the EU, and in turn can contribute to inefficient policing. The FRA guide aims to help the police address and avoid discriminatory ethnic profiling, and is designed to be used as a tool for more effective policing.
Access to effective remedies: The asylum-seeker perspective
September
2010

Access to effective remedies: The asylum-seeker perspective

Report
Drawing on evidence from interviews with almost 900 asylum seekers, this report presents asylum-seeker experiences in submitting an appeal against a negative asylum decision. While documenting good practices, it also highlights several obstacles which make it difficult for asylum applicants to access effective remedies.
The duty to inform applicants about asylum procedures: The asylum-seeker perspective
September
2010

The duty to inform applicants about asylum procedures: The asylum-seeker perspective

Report
A fair asylum procedure is one where applicants know their rights and duties, and where they understand its different stages. The right to be informed at decisive moments of the procedure is an important element of procedural fairness. Drawing on evidence from interviews with almost 900 asylum seekers, this report examines the information that asylum seekers have on the asylum procedure. In particular, it looks at the main source of information for asylum seekers, which type of information they receive, and when and how they receive it.
A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union
July
2010

A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union

Factsheet
The factsheet "A rights-based approach to HIV in the European Union" is the contribution of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) to the International AIDS Conference 2010, Vienna 18-23 July.
Annual activity report 2009
June
2010

Annual activity report 2009

Annual report
A core objective of the Agency is to provide EU policy-makers with evidence-based advice on fundamental rights issues when they implement Community law and take measures to respect fundamental rights. In 2009, the Agency achieved its objective by collecting comparable data and information on a range of fundamental rights issues and publishing its findings.
Annual Report 2010
June
2010

Annual Report 2010

Annual report
This report covers information, events and developments in the EU for the year 2009, after the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon. The report relies on data collected from the ground to describe the situation of fundamental rights in all 27 Member States.
Circle of Rights
May
2010

Circle of Rights

Other
This circle-shaped flyer gives information on fundamental rights and their impact upon peoples' lives at every stage. Moreover, some basic information about the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights can be found in the flyer.
Data Protection in the European Union: the role of National Data Protection Authorities (Strengthening the fundamental rights architecture in the EU II)
May
2010

Data Protection in the European Union: the role of National Data Protection Authorities (Strengthening the fundamental rights architecture in the EU II)

Report
The EU plays a pioneering role in the protection of personal data. The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU enshrines the right to data protection as an autonomous fundamental right. Despite the underlying importance and centrality of the right to data protection in the EU, many deficiencies are present in the data protection system. This study on data protection identifies deficiencies in the EU Member States.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 3: Rights Awareness
May
2010

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 3: Rights Awareness

Report
EU-MIDIS "Data in Focus" report 3 focuses on respondents' knowledge about their rights in the field of non-discrimination, including knowledge about Equality Bodies in Member States. This Data In Focus report on 'Rights Awareness and equality bodies' relates to Article 21, on 'non-discrimination', as enrshrined in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
FRA booklet
May
2010

FRA booklet

Other
The FRA booklet gives an overview on the work of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) as well as its role and main activities.
National Human Rights Institutions in the EU Member States (Strengthening the fundamental rights architecture in the EU I)
May
2010

National Human Rights Institutions in the EU Member States (Strengthening the fundamental rights architecture in the EU I)

Report
Human rights are first and foremost to be addressed at the national level. National human rights institutions (NHRIs) play an important role in the human rights architecture at the national level. This report by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), is intended to identify gaps and concerns in the fundamental rights architecture in the European Union.
Discover the past for the future – The role of historical sites and museums in Holocaust education and human rights education in the EU
January
2010

Discover the past for the future – The role of historical sites and museums in Holocaust education and human rights education in the EU

Report
In 2009, the FRA conducted the first EU-wide study of the role that European memorial sites, museums and exhibitions play with respect to educating young Europeans about the Holocaust and human rights. The findings of the study were presented at a Conference in Auschwitz on the 27 January bringing together Education Ministers from across Europe.
January
2010

Discover the past for the future – The role of historical sites and museums in Holocaust education and human rights education in the EU

Summary
The European Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) conducted European-wide research in 2009 on the contribution of memorial sites to Holocaust education and human rights education in the European Union (EU). This summary report, derived from the main report 'Discover the past for the future. The role of historical sites and museums in Holocaust education and human rights education in the EU', provides selected findings, discussion points and recommendations.
S'cool Agenda 2010: Packed with even more information than ever before!
December
2009

S'cool Agenda 2010: Packed with even more information than ever before!

Other
Keep track of your daily activities and homework and help to promote and protect fundamental rights in the EU For the third year running, the Agency is releasing its extremely popular awareness raising calendar for young people. This agenda, available in English, German and French, is intended to help young people to learn about fundamental rights issues in the EU.
FRA S'cool Agenda 2010
December
2009

FRA S'cool Agenda 2010

Other
Keep track of your daily activities and homework and help to PROMOTE AND PROTECT FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS in the EUFor the third year running, the Agency is releasing its extremely popular awareness raising calender for young people. This agenda, available in English, German and French, is intended to help young people to learn about fundamental rights issues in the EU.
The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States
November
2009

The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States

Report
This report released by the Agency highlights the case of the Roma and their particular challenges in exercising these rights. Based on the evidence of its report, the FRA advises the EU and its Member States to adopt targeted policies promoting social cohesion to ensure that all citizens can exercise their right to freedom of movement effectively.
November
2009

The situation of Roma EU citizens moving to and settling in other EU Member States

Factsheet
This factsheet highlights the different experiences of Roma regarding accessing housing, healthcare, education and social welfare. Across all countries studied, many respondents identified two main problems: the difficulty in finding a job in the formal labour market of their destination country, and difficulties with registration of residence.
Housing conditions of Roma and Travellers in the European Union - Comparative report
October
2009

Housing conditions of Roma and Travellers in the European Union - Comparative report

Report
The FRA report "Housing conditions of Roma and Travellers in the European Union" gives evidence that Roma and Travellers are strongly disadvantaged in private and social housing throughout the European Union. This includes discrimination in access to housing, poor housing conditions, segregation, and forced evictions.
Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices
July
2009

Child Trafficking in the EU - Challenges, perspectives and good practices

Report
Trafficking in human beings is a major problem both in the EU and worldwide. Every year a substantial number of children fall victim to trafficking for sexual exploitation or other purposes. There are extremely low numbers of convictions in child trafficking cases. Overall, the report finds that the EU must do more to address the issue. The FRA calls for better legislation to combat child trafficking. The protection and care for victims, in particular, must be improved.
Annual Report 2009
June
2009

Annual Report 2009

Annual report
The report covers information, events and developments on fundamental rights in the EU for the year 2008. The Agency's research shows that alarmingly few people are aware of their rights and where to report incidents of discrimination. Poor data collection in the EU-27 continues to hamper the implementation of effective policies to combat discrimination, whilst gaps in legal protection ensure that discrimination continues to thrive in certain areas.
Annual activity report  2008
June
2009

Annual activity report 2008

Report
The Annual Report 2008 is the first to be produced on the basis of the FRA legal base and mandate (Council Regulation 168//2007, art. 4.1(e)). It covers information, events and developments related to racism and xenophobia in the EU for the year 2007, which was the Agency's focus of work prior to the adoption of its Multiannual Framework in February 2008.
Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States: Part II - The Social Situation
June
2009

Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States: Part II - The Social Situation

Report
The FRA publishes its report "Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States: Part II - The Social Situation". The report finds that discrimination, harassment and violence against LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) persons are widespread throughout the EU. The FRA calls on political decision-makers to further improve equality legislation and ensure accurate reporting, in order to improve the situation.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 2: Muslims
May
2009

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 2: Muslims

Report
This report focuses on respondents who identified themselves as Muslims, and is the second in a series of EU-MIDIS ‘Data in Focus' reports exploring different results from the survey. Up to nine ‘Data in Focus' reports are planned. Given the shortage of extensive, objective and comparable data on Muslims in the European Union, EU-MIDIS provides, for the first time, comparable data on how Muslims across the EU experience discrimination and victimisation.
EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 1: The Roma
April
2009

EU-MIDIS Data in Focus Report 1: The Roma

Report
This report is the first EU-MIDIS ‘Data in Focus' report examining discrimination and victimisation experienced by the Roma. Of all the groups surveyed by the FRA, the Roma emerged as the group most vulnerable to discrimination and crime. The FRA has therefore analysed their situation in a ‘data in focus' report, the first in a series of reports on minority groups and issues covered by the survey.
March
2009

Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation - Summary

Summary
In 2007 the European Parliament requested the newly established Fundamental Rights Agency to develop a comprehensive comparative report relating to the existence of homophobia and discrimination based on sexual orientation in all EU Member States. In response the Agency carried out a large-scale legal and social research project during 2007 and 2008. This summary report provides an overview of the results of the social analysis.
February
2009

Consultation on FRA work on Roma and Travellers - Final consultation report

Report
In order to enhance its work and develop a new strategy on addressing the situation of Roma and Travellers communities, the FRA has consulted in 2008 with a selected number of organisations actively involved in work on Roma and Travellers issues and are familiar with the work already undertaken by the Agency. The Council of Europe, the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the Decade of Roma Inclusion, the European Commission and the European level organisations representing Roma and Traveller interests and/or engaging on behalf of the Roma and Traveller communities have been included through questionnaire consultation and were invited to take part at the FRA Roma Consultative meeting on 9 July 2008. This FRA Report presents the results of this consultation process.
Incident Report – Violent Attacks Against Roma in the Ponticelli district of Naples, Italy
August
2008

Incident Report – Violent Attacks Against Roma in the Ponticelli district of Naples, Italy

Report
This report provides information on the impact of the recent events in the Ponticelli district of Naples on Roma, immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers in May-June 2008. The report brings together the basic facts on these violent attacks as well as background information regarding the situation of Roma in Italy. It also describes efforts to address the situation by the Italian Authorities and the International Community, in particular the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and Civil society organisations.Available languages: English, French, German, Italian and Romanian (PDF format).
Annual Report 2008
June
2008

Annual Report 2008

Summary
The Annual Report 2008 is the first to be produced on the basis of the FRA legal base and mandate (Council Regulation 168//2007, art. 4.1(e)). This summary highlights information, events and developments related to racism and xenophobia in the EU for the year 2007 which are contained in the 2008 Annual Report.
Annual Report 2008
June
2008

Annual Report 2008

Annual report
The Annual Report 2008 is the first to be produced on the basis of the FRA legal base and mandate (Council Regulation 168//2007, art. 4.1(e)). It covers information, events and developments related to racism and xenophobia in the EU for the year 2007, which was the Agency's focus of work prior to the adoption of its Multiannual Framework in February 2008. The report summarises the findings of the Agency's on-going data collection through its RAXEN National Focal Points (NFPs) in each of the 27 Member States of the EU.
Football versus Intolerance - Equal Voices Issue 24
June
2008

Football versus Intolerance - Equal Voices Issue 24

Other
This edition of our magazine "Equal Voices" is a special edition on "football versus intolerance", which brings together perspectives from professional players, UEFA president Platini and European politicians, on how football can win the match against racism and other forms of intolerance.
Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States Part I – Legal Analysis
June
2008

Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation in the EU Member States Part I – Legal Analysis

Report
The report examines the situation of homophobia in the 27 EU Member States. It analyses comparatively key legal provisions, relevant judicial data, such as court decisions, and case law in the Member States. In addition, the report identifies and highlights 'good practice' in the form of positive measures and initiatives to overcome underreporting of LGBT (Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transsexuals) discrimination, to promote inclusion and to protect transgender persons. FRA's legal analysis is the first of two reports related to homophobia and discrimination experienced by members of the LGBT community.
Beyond Tolerance – Learning from Diversity - Equal Voices Issue 23
May
2008

Beyond Tolerance – Learning from Diversity - Equal Voices Issue 23

Other
The new edition of FRA's magazine deals with intercultural dialogue as a way to reap the benefits of diversity. The importance of intercultural dialogue was formally recognised by the EU in May 2007 when it was adopted as one of the three objectives in the first ever European Agenda for Culture.
April
2008

Discussion Paper: "The Benefits of positive actions"

Paper
The FRA has commissioned a series of policy focused papers to engage in thematic discussions on areas related to its Multi-annual Framework. The aim of these papers is to support, encourage and contribute to the debate on issues of relevance to the European Union Institutions, the Member States and the Agency's stakeholders.
January
2008

Antisemitism Summary overview of the situation in the European Union 2001-2007 (updated version January 2008)

Paper
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights presents in this paper the fourth brief update of its 2004 extensive report "Manifestations of anti-Semitism in the European Union". The overview contains the latest governmental and non-governmental statistical data covering 2001 to 2007 for those EU Member States that have official or unofficial data and statistics on anti-Semitic incidents.
A Diversity Toolkit for factual programmes in public service television
January
2008

A Diversity Toolkit for factual programmes in public service television

Toolkit
A Diversity Toolkit for factual programmes in public service television was published by FRA in January 2008 ahead of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue. The Toolkit was developed by media professionals under the auspices of the European Broadcasting Union (EBU).
EUMC Annual Activity Report 2006
2008

EUMC Annual Activity Report 2006

Annual report
This report illustrates some of the main activities of the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia in 2006
Annual report 2007 - Report on Racism and Xenophobia in the Member States of the EU
August
2007

Annual report 2007 - Report on Racism and Xenophobia in the Member States of the EU

Annual report
Unequal treatment continues in employment, housing and education, according to data collected by the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Figures for racist crime in 2005 and 2006 are up in a number of EU countries. While there are more signs that the EU's anti-discrimination legislation is having a positive impact, victims of discrimination still lack knowledge of the new rules.
Equal Rights - Multiple Benefits -  Equal Voices Issue 20
December
2006

Equal Rights - Multiple Benefits - Equal Voices Issue 20

Other
This issue of the EUMC's Magazine Equal Voices is published in the context of the 2007 European Year of Equal Opportunities for All. Equal Voices intends to contribute to the aim of the Year to reflect, discuss and further promote equal opportunities in the EU.
December
2006

Perceptions of discrimination and Islamophobia

Report
The Report "Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia" is accompanied by a study on "Perceptions of discrimination and Islamophobia", which is based on in-depth interviews with members of Muslim communities in ten EU Member States. This study provides a snapshot of the opinions, feelings, fears, frustrations, and also the hopes for the future shared by many Muslims in the EU.
Putting integration policies into practice - Equal Voices 19
October
2006

Putting integration policies into practice - Equal Voices 19

Other
This issue of Equal Voices seeks to give an overview of the main questions around the ‘integration debate' at the EU level: What is the context of the current debate? How is integration defined? Can integration be measured, and how? What should integration policies look like?
October
2006

Racism, Xenophobia and the Media: Towards respect and understanding of all religions and cultures (Conference report)

Conference Paper
Some 120 journalists and media practitioners from Europe, North Africa and the Middle East met in Vienna on 22 and 23 May 2006 to discuss the influence of media on intercultural relations and racism. Topics under discussion included improving reporting standards and accountability of journalists; self-regulation policies in the EU and in South-Mediterranean countries; impact of media reporting on ethnic and religious minorities; negative stereotyping; balancing freedom of expression with protection from hate speech; and making better use of expertise and experience of ethnic minority organisations.
Annual Report 2006 - Inadequacy of data on racist crime for 2006
June
2006

Annual Report 2006 - Inadequacy of data on racist crime for 2006

Annual report
The EUMC Annual Report 2006 looks at racial discrimination and data on racist violence and crime. It also includes an overview of positive initiatives.The EUMC finds that migrants and ethnic minorities remain discriminated against across the EU in employment, education and housing.
The right to offend and the right not to be offended - Equal Voices Issue 18
June
2006

The right to offend and the right not to be offended - Equal Voices Issue 18

Other
The recent months have seen a heated debate on freedom of speech and hate speech. This issue of the EUMC's Magazine Equal Voices brings together different views on the issue: NGOs, representatives of different religious communities, and media experts explain how they think hate speech can be tackled, and how freedom of speech should be applied in our societies.
January
2006

Migrants, Minorities and Housing

Report
This report is based on information supplied by the FRA's national focal points, and it shows that across the EU 15 similar mechanisms of housing disadvantage and discrimination affect migrants and minorities, such as denying access to accommodation on the grounds of the applicant's skin colour, imposing restrictive conditions limiting access to public housing, or even violent physical attacks aimed at deterring minorities from certain neighbourhoods.
September
2005

Policing Racist Crime and Violence

Report
The report on "Policing Racist Crime and Violence" is based on information collected by the Agency's National Focal Points. The report examines police recording practices, responses to victims of racist crimes, training provided to the police and their engagement with civil society. The emerging data reveals that only two Member States systematically encourage reporting of racist incidents. International police coordination and cooperation with NGOs could be enhanced, while police training is not specific enough to equip officers to tackle racist crime effectively.
Annual Report 2005 - Part 2
June
2005

Annual Report 2005 - Part 2

Annual report
This annual report of the Agency is the EU's first comprehensive overview of racist, xenophobic, antisemitic and anti-Muslim discrimination, and responses to it, to cover all 25 EU Member States. The Roma emerge as the group most vulnerable to racism in the EU. They face discrimination in employment, housing and education - as well as being regular victims of racial violence. Other groups facing high levels of discrimination in many Member States are migrant workers from Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. Muslim groups face particularly challenging conditions in many Member States. Also recent migrants from Russia or the Ukraine may be subject to discrimination in some Member States.
April
2005

Racist Violence in 15 EU Member States

The report on ‘Racist Violence in 15 EU Member States' is based on national reports by the Agency's National Focal Points and includes available data for the period 2001-2004. The focus of the report is on the extent and nature of, and policy responses to, racist violence (and associated activities) in EU15.
April