The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) has applied across the European
Union (EU) since 25 May 2018. One year on, this paper looks at how the new
regulation has affected the daily work of civil society organisations (CSOs).
Algorithms used in machine learning systems and artificial intelligence (AI) can only be as good as the data used for their development. High quality data are essential for high quality algorithms. Yet, the call for high quality data in discussions around AI often remains without any further specifications and guidance as to what this actually means.
The year 2018 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental
rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2019 reviews major
developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas
of concern. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the main developments
in the thematic areas covered, and a synopsis of the evidence supporting these
This guide explains what profiling is, the legal frameworks that regulate it, and why conducting profiling lawfully is both necessary to comply with fundamental rights and crucial for effective policing and border management. The guide also provides practical guidance on how to avoid unlawful profiling in police and border management operations.
With enormous volumes of data generated every day, more and more decisions are based
on data analysis and algorithms. This can bring welcome benefits, such as consistency and
objectivity, but algorithms also entail great risks. A FRA focus paper looks at how the use
of automation in decision making can result in, or exacerbate, discrimination.
In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of rights protection. The European Pillar of Social Rights marked an important move towards a more ‘social Europe’. But, as experiences with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights underscore, agreement on a text is merely a first step. Even in its eighth year as the EU's binding bill of rights, the Charter's potential was not fully exploited, highlighting the need to more actively promote its use.
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the EU between
January and December 2017, and outlines FRA’s opinions thereon.
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of
machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions
and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on
data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways.
This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area
particularly affected by technological developments.