Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

Products
10
April
2024
Racism in the police can include discriminatory racial profiling practices through to excessive use of force. Incidents like these highlight deeper systemic issues that need addressing. Many in society are affected by racism in policing, not only the individuals or communities targeted. Lack of trust in policing can fuel social exclusion and damages the foundations of a fair and equal society, however promising practices are developing to address these issues. This is the first EU-wide report on racism in policing. FRA’s findings identify gaps in regulatory frameworks and propose concrete steps for action.
2
February
2024
This technical report provides all the relevant technical information on the design, implementation and finalisation of the survey on immigrants and descendants of immigrants. Details of the data collection process also contribute to the iterative improvement of survey methodologies, especially when it comes to surveying populations and groups that are considered ‘hard-to-reach’ or difficult to survey.
29
November
2023
Online hate speech is a growing problem in today’s digitalised societies. Women, Black people, Jews and Roma are often targets of online hate speech. Online hate proliferates where human content moderators miss offensive content. Also, algorithms are prone to errors. They may multiply errors over time and may even end up promoting online hate. This report presents the challenges in identifying and detecting online hate. Hate of any kind should not be tolerated, regardless of whether it is online or offline. The report discusses the implications for fundamental rights to support creating a rights-compliant digital environment.
7
November
2023
Antisemitic incidents and hate crimes violate fundamental rights. This report provides an overview of antisemitic incidents in 2022. It reveals persistent gaps in the recording of antisemitism across Europe that impedes efforts to effectively counter hatred towards Jews. It covers antisemitic incidents reported in the 27 EU Member States in 2022 and includes available data of the same year from Albania, the Republic of North Macedonia and Serbia. As this is a yearly publication covering the period 01/01/2022–31/12/2022, it does not include antisemitic incidents reported in 2023. This is the 19th edition and is the only annual source of data of this nature for the EU.”
Findings from FRA’s Being Black in the EU report point to people of African descent experiencing widespread racism and discrimination in their daily lives.
25
October
2023
FRA's first Being Black in the EU report exposed widespread and entrenched racism against people of African descent in Europe. Now updated with new data, this report revisits the situation revealing persistent racial discrimination, harassment and violence. Overall, experiences of racial discrimination increased in the EU countries since 2016, reaching as high as 77%. The lack of progress is alarming despite binding anti-discrimination law in the EU since 2000 and significant EU policy developments since then.
20
October
2023
FRA’s strategic priorities and objectives are based on the agency’s role and mission as defined in its amended founding regulation. They build on FRA’s 2018–2022 strategy as well as how it performed, its experience and its vision. Their design takes into account future fundamental rights challenges facing Europe, the agency’s mandate, the broader operational context and the resources available.
13
September
2023
Europe’s ageing population is ever-increasing, and our societies are becoming more digitalised. Many public services are now available online, with many more services in the process of being digitalised. But the digitalisation of public services poses a risk of exclusion for older persons. In this new report, FRA explores the impact of digitalisation on the fundamental rights of older persons. The report maps the current legislation, policies and practices fostering digital inclusion. It provides an overview of the laws at the national level that provide for equal access to public services, both online and offline. The findings show how Member States safeguard older person’s rights to access services undergoing digitalisation. It outlines how Member States can support digital skills and ensure older people can fully participate in public life.

8
June
2023
Russia’s unprovoked war of aggression against Ukraine has resulted in massive internal and external population displacement. The European Union (EU) rapidly activated its Temporary Protection Directive for the first time since it was adopted in 2001. This entitled nearly 4 million people to legal residence and access to work, housing and legal assistance, education and healthcare.
8
June
2023
FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2023 reviews major developments in the field in 2022, identifying both achievements and areas of concern. It also presents FRA’s opinions on these developments, including a synopsis of the evidence supporting these opinions.
8
June
2023
The year 2022 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2023 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the main developments in the thematic areas covered, and a synopsis of the evidence supporting these opinions.
FRA’s 2021 survey on Roma in Croatia, Czechia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, North Macedonia, Portugal, Romania, Serbia and Spain collected information from 8,461 respondents living in private households who self-identify as Roma, are 16 or older and have lived in the survey countries for at least the 12 months before the survey.
20
March
2023
This guide helps independent national monitoring frameworks to fulfil their monitoring responsibility set out in Article 33 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). It focuses on the use of indicators. It does not deal with aspects such as compliance with the Paris Principles or the efficiency of complaints mechanisms. Its objective is to support national monitoring frameworks in designing or improving indicators for assessing progress of CRPD implementation at national level.
27
February
2023
FRA’s 2021 survey on Roma was conducted in Croatia, Czechia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania, and Spain, as well as in North Macedonia and Serbia. It includes interviews with more than 8,400 Roma, collecting information on more than 20,000 individuals living in their households. This technical report provides a detailed overview of the survey methodology used by FRA when collecting the survey data.
8
December
2022
Artificial intelligence is everywhere and affects everyone – from deciding what content people see on their social media feeds to determining who will receive state benefits. AI technologies are typically based on algorithms that make predictions to support or even fully automate decision-making.
11
November
2022
Europe stands at a delicate moment in its history. It is a moment of existential significance for the wellbeing and sustainability of our societies. It is emerging from the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease, only to face a set of major overlapping challenges. These pose profound questions about the political, economic and societal future of the continent. To discuss elements of a human rights vision for the future and to identify opportunities for action, FRA brought together a group of sixty human rights leaders and experts with diverse backgrounds
from across the continent. This report distils the meeting discussions, including analysis and ideas, and concludes with proposals for action. It does not represent the views either of individual participants or of FRA.
3
November
2022
Antisemitic incidents and hate crimes violate fundamental rights, especially the right to human dignity, the right to equality of treatment and the freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This report provides an overview of available data on antisemitism as recorded by official and unofficial sources in the EU Member States and in Albania, North Macedonia and Serbia. The data provided by the countries are supplemented with information from international organisations.
25
October
2022
02 November 2022
This report presents findings from FRA’s 2021 survey on Roma in Croatia, Czechia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Romania and Spain, as well as in North Macedonia and Serbia. The survey includes interviews with more than 8,400 Roma, collecting information on more than 20,000 individuals living in their households. By focusing on Roma, the survey provides unique data and information that are not available from European general population surveys, which do not disaggregate on grounds of ethnic origin. The findings present a bleak but familiar picture of exclusion, deprivation, discrimination and racism.
Young? Passionate about human rights? Having the right data can make a world of difference for your campaigning.
16
September
2022
Europe stands at a delicate moment in its history, facing a convergence of major tests. Each of them taken on their own is significant. Together, they pose profound questions about the political, economic, and societal future of the continent. This is a moment for strong commitment to put human rights at the heart of our vision for Europe’s future. It is also time to demonstrate our determination to work together to this end. Against this backdrop, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) brought together around sixty human rights leaders and experts from across the continent to discuss elements of a human rights vision for the future and to identify opportunities for action. A full conference report will be available soon, including the specific ideas and proposals which arose from the meeting. Meanwhile, this is a summary of the conclusions.
Findings from FRA’s Being Black in the EU report point to people of African descent experiencing widespread racism and discrimination in their daily lives.
Young? Passionate about human rights? Having the right data can make a world of difference for your campaigning.
On 7 May 2022, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) organised the fourth Fundamental Rights Dialogue – a live debate that gives young people an opportunity to voice their fundamental rights concerns and to discuss ways to solve them.
In this vlog, FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty, points to the need to recommit to human rights, as evidenced by the wide-ranging impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. Here he refers to vaccine inequalities and the impact on marginalised communities, disadvantaged children and frontline workers. As he explains in this vlog, human rights can help fix and strengthen society so we are ready for the next pandemic.
In this vlog, FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty talks about the importance of celebrating diversity in our societies. He calls on everyone to build bridges and listen to each other, so we can create a society where everyone is equal in dignity and in rights.
In this vlog, FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty highlights the need to work together to tackle hate and discrimination in our societies.
If we are serious about protecting fundamental rights, we need to start listening to young people and what they have to tell us. This message came through very strongly at the Fundamental Rights Forum 2021. As we kick off the European Year of Youth 2022, let’s look at why listening to young people is key to protecting their rights.
In this vlog, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty points to the urgent need to work towards a fairer society and asks us all, as we go forward, to work less for people in the struggle for equality, but much more with them.
On 23 February 2021, FRA’s Director, Michael O’Flaherty, listened to fundamental rights concerns and discussed ways to solve them. The second Fundamental Rights Dialogue invited young people to participate in shaping our societies, placing human rights centre stage.
Drawing on the ‘Encouraging hate crime reporting: the role of law enforcement and other authorities' report, in this infographic FRA outlines why reporting is so important and what must change to encourage hate crime reporting.
On 16 June, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights publishes the seventh of its bulletins on the fundamental rights impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In his vlog FRA Director draws attention to fundamental rights issues related to the roll out of the vaccines in the EU 27 Member States.
There are many reasons for the police to stop someone. But prejudice should not be one of them. Find out what FRA is doing to end discriminatory police stops.
There are many reasons why adults may find themselves in a situation of vulnerability - because of their age, health or disability. Vulnerable people are at greater risk of unfair treatment, exploitation or abuse. And cross-border settings can lead to additional obstacles. It's time to address these challenges and identify the needs of vulnerable adults so everyone can enjoy their fundamental rights.
This video statement by FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty was recorded for the online event '2021 Mayors Summit Against Anti-Semitism' which took place on 16 March 2021. The event was hosted by the city of Frankfurt am Main in partnership with the Combat Anti-Semitism Movement (CAM).
On 13 November, the Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) hosted its first Fundamental Rights Dialogue - a virtual event that gave young people an opportunity to voice their fundamental rights concerns and discussed ways to solve them with FRA's Director Michael O'Flaherty.
This video statement by FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty was recorded for the online event "Union of Equality: achievements and challenges ahead".
Although many steps have been taken in recent years to change LGBTI people’s lives for the better in the EU, there is still a long way to go, notes FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty in this video message to Athens Pride 2020.
In his latest vlog, FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty speaks about the devastating effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the Roma community. Roma children are in danger of losing almost a whole year of schooling. It’s like losing a generation. It’s robbing children of the one place where they can have hope and dream the same dreams of every other child.
In this video message to the Equality2020 conference on 29 June, FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty speaks about our shared struggle for a Europe that honours everybody in their diversity, in their equality and in their dignity.
In this video message FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty speaks about LGBTI equality on the occasion of the Global Pride 2020:
https://www.globalpride2020.org/
FRA took part in the European Cancer Organisation’s civil society workshop on social cancer inequalities. FRA presented its work drawing from its LGBTIQ survey.
On 14 March, the European Economic and Social Committee's Permanent group on the Inclusion of Roma held a public hearing on ensuring political participation of Roma at the local, national and European level. It sought to identify obstacles, solutions and good practices.
FRA presented its approach to measuring self-identification and discrimination experiences, during the second meeting of Eurostat’s Equality and Non-Discrimination Statistics Task Force.
In its observer role, FRA attended the fourth and final meeting of the informal, ad-hoc and temporary group on combating anti-Muslim hatred.
From 21 to 23 January, experts and policy makers met to discuss on how to best streamline the implementation and monitoring of international and European policies on children, youth affairs and child rights.
Over the years, the EU and its Member States have continued to improve child protection systems though gaps still remain. The EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) mapped the current situation across the EU to support efforts to make further improvements.
FRA took part in a meeting of the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) on 23 January.
On 17 January, the UN Development Programme held a virtual roundtable event on ‘Being Black in the EU and beyond. People of African Descent, discrimination and the SDGs’. The event was prompted by FRA’s recent publication ‘Being Black in the EU’.
In Madrid on 30 November, FRA took part in the European Platform for Roma Inclusion, a regular event organised since 2009.
On 7 December, FRA took part in a meeting of the European Commission’s Interservice Group on Child Rights. The meeting discussed the Commission’s recommendation on integrated child protection systems, planned for the first quarter 2024.
FRA’s presented its work on antisemitism at the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance Plenary meeting.
The UN Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence against Children, Dr Najat Maalla M'jid, visited FRA on 27 November.
FRA addressed the Council of the EU’s Working Party on Fundamental Rights, Citizens Rights and Free Movement of Persons (FREMP) on 15 November in Brussels.
FRA has updated its anti-Muslim hatred database. It provides an easy-to-use overview of information on hate crime, hate speech and discrimination against Muslims across the EU, Albania, Serbia and North Macedonia.
The annual overview of antisemitic incidents from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) yet again reveals persistent gaps in the recording of antisemitism across Europe. Each country continues to collect data differently. Some still do not collect any data at all. This impedes efforts to effectively counter hatred towards Jews.
FRA is aware of the recent reported increase in incidents of intolerance and racial discrimination in EU Member States. The Agency stands firmly against all expressions of intolerance and racial discrimination, including hate speech and violence.
FRA took part in the Other side of the law: Enforcement of antidiscrimination legislation Equinet conference in Brussels on 12 October.
Almost half of people of African descent in the EU face racism and discrimination in their daily life – a rise since 2016. Racist harassment and ethnic profiling are also common, especially for young people, finds a new survey from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). FRA calls on EU countries to take urgent steps to tackle racial discrimination and harassment to ensure everybody is treated equally and with dignity.
FRA provided an update about its child rights research on 20 October to European Commission representatives and child rights experts.
On 19 October, FRA welcomed members of the Vienna NGO Committees on the Status of Women, on Sustainable Development and on Ageing.
On 24 April, FRA will hold a webinar on Mapping Child Protection Systems in the EU – Update 2023. The webinar will take place from 10:00-11:30 am CEST.
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FRA will present its work on the LGBTIQ survey at the LGBTIQ Equality Subgroup meeting that runs from 19 to 20 March.
On 20 March, FRA will hold an inception meeting with partners from its Franet research network for a new project on violence against people with disabilities in institutions.
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Between 21 and 23 February, FRA will take part in train-the-trainer sessions in Romania on tackling hate crime. The event is aimed at prosecutors, law enforcement and other relevant professionals.
FRA will present findings from its ‘Being Black in the EU - experiences of people of African descent’ report at an online event in Ireland. The event takes place on 15 February.
On 28 November, the EU Network of Member States will meet in Brussels. They will discuss the European Commission’s Recommendation on integrated child protection systems and accompanying Staff Working Document that are currently under preparation.
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FRA will take part in the International Conference on Human Rights of Older Persons 2023. FRA will present the findings of its report on the fundamental rights of older people and ensuring access to digital public services.
On 23 November, FRA will hold a webinar on findings from its report on fundamental rights of older people. The discussion will centre on the digital skills of older people in Europe.
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The OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) will hold its annual meeting of National Points of Contact on Combating Hate Crimes.
The European Network of Equality Bodies (Equinet) will hold a workshop on how Equality Bodies can support deinstitutionalisation from a multi ground perspective.
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FRA will join an expert workshop that will focus on sharing national experiences with online and offline public campaigns against hate crime and hate speech.
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FRA will take part in an international seminar organised by the Spanish National Office for Combating Hate Crimes. It falls under the Spanish presidency of the Council of the EU.
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From 22 to 23 October, FRA will take part in the next Advisory Board meeting in Brussels of the EU Children’s Participation Platform.
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Racism remains a persistent problem in the EU. EU actions are driving laws and policies to tackle racial discrimination. To guide these efforts, a high-level conference on anti-racism in the EU will take place in Barcelona on 2 and 3 November 2023. It will explore what underpins structural racism in Europe, what the EU and its Member States are doing to address it, as well as how people of African descent are represented in public office and the media.
FRA will join a panel on inequality, human rights and development during the EU-Latin America and the Caribbean Policy Dialogue in Washington on 19 October.
FRA will speak on best practices for ensuring electoral rights for people with disabilities during the European Commission’s high-level event on elections in Brussels on 23 October.
On 10 October, FRA will welcome the Seniors Office of the City of Vienna.
FRA will deliver an online session on equality data collection as part of the Council of Europe’s InSchool project training programme.
A Collaborative Platform on Social and Economic Rights will meet to discuss realising social rights in the age of digitalisation.
FRA will welcome a group of students from Vienna’s Diplomatic Academy on 13 July. The students are part of the Jean Monnet Summer School on EU policy making.