Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

Products
9
November
2018
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats,
harassment, discrimination and unequal treatment, property damage and graffiti or other
forms of speech or text, including on the internet. The present report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by
international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European
Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
26
October
2018
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ 2018 Fundamental Rights Forum
brought together more than 700 human rights champions at a time of
widening social divisions and increasingly polarised politics across
Europe.
17
October
2018
Almost 25 million children under 18 are at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. Poverty deprives children of educational
opportunities, childcare, access to health care, adequate food and housing, family support and even protection from violence.
This report outlines data and survey findings that highlight the magnitude of child poverty in the EU, but also presents tools
available to counter this phenomenon and keep track of progress made.
20
September
2018
With enormous volumes of data generated every day, more and more decisions are based on data analysis and algorithms. This can bring welcome benefits, such as consistency and objectivity, but algorithms also entail great risks. A FRA focus paper looks at how the use of automation in decision making can result in, or exacerbate, discrimination.
12
September
2018
In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
29
August
2018
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
19
July
2018
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived
and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents
FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education
and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
21
June
2018
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality. In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.
6
June
2018
Finnish version now available
27 January 2020
European societies are not getting any younger! It is a simple truth we must face both about ourselves and Europe as a whole. In two generations, by 2080, those aged 65 or above will account for almost 30% of the European Union’s population.
6
June
2018
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern.
30
May
2018
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways. This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area particularly affected by technological developments.
25
April
2018
The methods used to determine the age of
an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity,
integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting
their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting
children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
25
April
2018
The right to access justice and all other relevant procedural rights are not just rights in themselves; they also protect against violations of every other right. Respect for children’s rights in the area of justice is therefore essential. International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law, and national legislation provide a number of relevant rights.
The EU's Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) work together to help states improve their ability to record and collect hate crime data through national workshops.
6
April
2018
Despite ambitious initiatives, the fundamental rights situation of Roma in the EU remains profoundly troubling. This report examines the persisting phenomenon of anti-Gypsyism and its effect on Roma inclusion efforts. It first presents data on key manifestations of anti-Gypsyism, namely discrimination, harassment and hate crime.
21
March
2018
New language versions: Estonian, Maltese, Danish, Latvian
23 March 2022
European non-discrimination law, as constituted in particular by the EU non-discrimination directives, and Article 14 of and Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibits discrimination across a range of contexts and grounds. This handbook examines European non-discrimination law stemming from these two sources as complementary systems, drawing on them interchangeably to the extent that they overlap, while highlighting differences where these exist.
16
January
2018
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or
permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented
by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided
to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key
features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need
of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in
human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
3
January
2018
Inside this book you will read about the justice system and the problems in justice for children and how to fix the problems.
15
December
2017
This meeting report distils the discussions held during a high-level expert meeting organised by FRA, which explored the shared space between religion and human rights.
6
December
2017
Seventeen years after adoption of EU laws that forbid discrimination, immigrants, descendants of immigrants, and minority ethnic groups continue to face widespread discrimination across the EU and in all areas of life – most often when seeking employment. For many, discrimination is a recurring experience. This is just one of the findings of FRA’s second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), which collected information from over 25,500 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all 28 EU Member States.
On 16 July, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty presented the results of the LGBTI survey to the LIBE Committee of the European Parliament.
On 7 July, the EU CRPD Framework met Commissioner Helena Dalli (Equality) to discuss the future European Disability Strategy and ways of reinforcing the CRDP Framework in the future.
On 3 July, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty participated in a panel discussion about racism and discrimination in the EU.
FRA Director spoke at the Equality2020: 20 Years of Equality Bodies conference, on 29 June.
Many older people in care homes fell victim to COVID-19. Many also faced months of isolation and restrictions often harsher than those enforced for other parts of the population. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) looks at how the pandemic affected the rights of older people. It highlights the need for a rights-based approach as governments shape their exit strategies.
On Saturday, 27 June, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) joins the Global Pride - a virtual event that allows the LGBTI+ community to come together and celebrate diversity and equality during these challenging times. FRA takes this opportunity to renew its call on EU countries to step up their efforts and put in place lasting measures protecting the rights of LGBTI people across Europe.
FRA spoke at the annual meeting of the EU Framework for the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and ENNHRI’s Working Group on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 22 June.
On 12 June, FRA participated in the first project board meeting for the Creating system for quantitative data collection to evaluate the situation of Roma in the Czech Society project.
Growing intolerance and attacks on people’s fundamental rights continue to erode the considerable progress achieved over the years, finds FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2020. As Europe begins to emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic we see a worsening of existing inequalities and threats to societal cohesion.
FRA Director Michael O'Flaherty presented insights from the agency’s Roma and Travellers survey and its second minorities and discrimination survey during a meeting of the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs on 4 June.
Racist harassment, violence and discriminatory ethnic profiling are commonplace in Europe. Following the current protests that are spreading across the continent, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) calls on EU Member States to step up their efforts and effectively fight discrimination, harassment and violence against black people.
We, the Diplomatic Missions of Albania, Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, Montenegro, the Netherlands, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, as well as the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, the EU Delegation to the International Organisations in Vienna, UN GLOBE Vienna and the Vienna School of International Studies, welcome the 17th May as the International Day against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia, as a celebration of diversity and inclusion around the world.
More lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people are now open about who they are but fear, violence and discrimination remain high, show the results of the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s survey on experiences of LGBTI people in Europe. With 140,000 respondents, it is the largest ever survey on hate crime and discrimination against LGBTI people. The findings should drive policy measures to further protect and promote the rights of LGBTI people.
On 28 April, FRA hosted the first meeting of the relaunched Roma Working Party.
COVID-19 is disrupting the lives and livelihoods of billions of workers across the globe. Ahead of International Workers’ Day, the EU Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) underlines the need for governments, workers and employers to continue their concerted efforts to combat the outbreak, ensure public health, and safeguard workers’ fundamental rights now and in the future.
Since the beginning of Coronavirus lockdowns, police, women shelters and NGOs have reported a surge in domestic violence, especially violence targeting women. The pandemic exposed how common this serious human rights abuse is and how insufficient the measures to fight it still are. The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) and the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) call on the EU and the Member States to use the coronavirus pandemic as an opportunity to step up their efforts to effectively protect women's rights.
Government measures to combat COVID-19 have profound implications for everybody’s fundamental rights, including the right to life and to health, as mapped by a new Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) report. Government responses to stop the virus particularly affect the rights of already vulnerable or at-risk people, such as the elderly, children, people with disabilities, Roma or refugees. Respecting human rights and protecting public health is in everyone’s best interest – they have to go hand-in-hand.
Overcrowding and poor access to sanitation have long blighted Roma communities across Europe. On the eve of International Roma Day, the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) highlight the longstanding neglect of Roma that is now leaving them highly vulnerable as the COVID-19 pandemic spreads across the globe.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a grave and immense threat to the health of humanity. Governments take urgent measures to curb its spread to safeguard public health and provide medical care to those who need it. They are acting to defend the human rights of health and of life itself. Inevitably, these measures limit our human and fundamental rights to an extent rarely experienced in peacetime. It is important to ensure that such limitations are consistent with our legal safeguards and that their impact on particular groups is adequately taken account of.
The FRA Director, Michael O’Flaherty will deliver a video message to an online seminar discussing its ‘A long way to go for LGBTI equality’ report.
FRA’s Director will address a panel discussion on rule of law, human rights, and religion. The discussion will take place on 16 October during the G20 interfaith forum.
The FRA Director will address the launch conference of the new EU Roma strategic framework for equality, inclusion and participation. He will draw on FRA’s Roma surveys underlining the persistent circle of poverty and discrimination many Roma and Travellers continue to endure.
FRA will facilitate the meeting of the Subgroup on Equality Data, under the EU High Level Group on Non-Discrimination, Equality and Diversity.
The UN Special Rapporteur on Minority Issues invited FRA’s Director to deliver a keynote speech during the opening of the UN’s European Regional Forum on hate speech, social media and minorities.
FRA’s Director will give a keynote speech at a conference on tackling gendered Islamophobia in Europe.
On 29 September, FRA’s Director Michael O’Flaherty speaks at an international conference on lessons learned from COVID-19 for strengthening older people’s rights in times of digitalisation.
On 28 September, FRA’s Director Michael O’Flaherty takes part in a seminar on how to best communicate equality and diversity messages.
FRA director will deliver a keynote speech on 10 September during an online conference tackling antisemitism.
On 16 July, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will present the results of the LGBTI survey to the LIBE Committee of the European Parliament.
On 14 July, FRA is invited to contribute to the reflection of the Working Party on Social Question of the EU Council.
The EU CRPD Framework will meet with the EU Equality Commissioner Helena Dalli on 7 July.
The FRA Director will join EU Equality Commissioner Helena Dalli for a seminar on racism and discrimination in the EU during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hundreds of Pride marches and events were cancelled or postponed due to COVID-19.
On 18 June, FRA will host a coordination meeting of working groups under the EU’s High Level Group on combatting racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance.
FRA will join the third meeting of the European Commission’s working group on the implementation of the Council declaration on the fight against antisemitism.
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On 25-26 May, FRA will host the second meeting of the relaunched Roma Working Party.
FRA will take part in discussions during the EU’s high-level group on non-discrimination, equality and diversity on 26 May.
FRA will join a video conference on 18 May to mark the International Day against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia.