Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.


In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to
move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making
use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to
vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge.
This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC)
across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived
and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents
FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education
and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality.
In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services
for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence
to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed
information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation
with civil society.
Finnish version now available
27 January 2020
European societies are not getting any younger! It is a simple truth we must face both about ourselves and Europe as a whole. In two generations, by 2080, those aged 65 or above will account for almost 30% of the European Union’s population.
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern.
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of
machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions
and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on
data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways.
This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area
particularly affected by technological developments.
The methods used to determine the age of
an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity,
integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting
their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting
children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
The right to access justice and all other relevant procedural rights are not just rights in themselves; they also protect against violations of every other right. Respect for children’s rights in the area of justice is therefore essential. International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law, and national legislation provide a number of relevant rights.
The EU's Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) work together to help states improve their ability to record and collect hate crime data through national workshops.
Despite ambitious initiatives, the fundamental rights situation of Roma in the EU remains profoundly troubling. This report
examines the persisting phenomenon of anti-Gypsyism and its effect on Roma inclusion efforts. It first presents data on
key manifestations of anti-Gypsyism, namely discrimination, harassment and hate crime.
New language versions: Lithuanian, Portuguese and Slovak
28 October 2021
European non-discrimination law, as constituted in particular by the EU non-discrimination
directives, and Article 14 of and Protocol 12 to the European Convention on Human Rights, prohibits
discrimination across a range of contexts and grounds. This handbook examines European non-discrimination
law stemming from these two sources as complementary systems, drawing on
them interchangeably to the extent that they overlap, while highlighting differences where
these exist.
Guardians are a key element of a protection system for children who are temporarily or
permanently deprived of their family environment and cannot have their interests represented
by their parents. Great disparities exist between the types of guardianship provided
to children in and within European Union (EU) Member States. This report explores the key
features of guardianship systems put in place to cater for the needs of all children in need
of protection, including child victims and those at risk of becoming victims of trafficking in
human beings or of other forms of exploitation.
Inside this book you will read about the justice system and the problems in justice for children and how to fix the problems.
Seventeen years after adoption of EU laws that forbid discrimination, immigrants, descendants of immigrants, and minority
ethnic groups continue to face widespread discrimination across the EU and in all areas of life – most often when seeking
employment. For many, discrimination is a recurring experience. This is just one of the findings of FRA’s second European Union Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II), which
collected information from over 25,500 respondents with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across all
28 EU Member States.
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) launches its second EU Minorities and Discrimination Survey (EU-MIDIS II).

Survey on Minorities and Discrimination in EU (2016)

This survey involved interviews with 25,515 people with different ethnic minority and immigrant backgrounds across 28 EU countries. It explores issues concerning discrimination as well as experiences of harassment, hate-motivated violence and discriminatory profiling.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to discrimination. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to victimisation. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
This infographic illustrates the main experiences immigrants and ethnic minorities across the EU have when it comes to inclusion. It draws from the findings from FRA's EU-MIDIS II survey.
While ever more countries introduce measures to counter the current health risks, it is important to remember that societies based on solidarity and inclusion are more resilient to fast-changing circumstances, said the heads of three European human rights institutions on the eve of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
Thousands of unaccompanied children in Greece are living in conditions that are completely unsuitable – without adequate housing, exposed to the cold weather, facing insecurity and even violence. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) welcomes the initiative of the European Commission and some Member States to relocate these unaccompanied children.
FRA and the OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights facilitated a workshop for law enforcement officers and other relevant partners in Ireland from 26 to 27 February.
On 18 February, the FRA Director welcomed the renewed focus on the post-2020 EU initiative for Roma equality and inclusion in his speech at the 16th Meeting of the National Roma Contact Points in Brussel.
It was 75 years ago today that soldiers liberated the Auschwitz extermination camp. A poignant time to learn from the horrors of the past and build for a better future.
International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) members reaffirmed their commitment to fighting Holocaust distortion, antisemitism, anti-Gypsyism and other forms of discrimination on 19 January.
On 14 and 15 January, FRA, together with the OSCE’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), facilitated a workshop for law enforcement officers and officials responsible for (hate) crime registration in Belgium.
On 19 December, FRA took part in a Brussels seminar on a working definition of anti-Muslim hatred/Islamophobia.
This year FRA looks forward to a new decade for fundamental human rights across Europe, as the new European Parliament and Commission hit the ground running with a raft of new strategies promoting and protecting rights.
During the second meeting of the European Commission’s antisemitism working group, Member States exchanged best practices and shared experiences of their efforts to prevent, address and respond to antisemitism through education.
During the second meeting of the European Commission’s antisemitism working group, Member States exchanged best practices and shared experiences of their efforts to prevent, address and respond to antisemitism through education.
FRA joined the European Parliament Working Group on Antisemitism, the European Jewish Congress and B'nai B'rith International for a mobilising event on 10 December in Brussels.
The German Federal Police held their autumn conference in Wiesbaden from 27 to 28 November.
Summaries of the findings from the biggest survey of discrimination and hate crime against Jews ever conducted worldwide are now available in Bulgarian, Czech, Estonian, Greek, Hebrew, Latvian, Maltese, Slovak, Slovenian and Portuguese.
European Day of Persons with Disabilities is a time to remind ourselves of the urgent need to live up to our commitments to achieve equality for all. This is especially pressing since the European Disability Strategy will end in 2020.
Today marks 30 years of the United Nation’s Convention on the Rights of the Child – a landmark human rights treaty. It changed how adults view and treat children. But despite considerable progress in Europe, basic challenges, such as child poverty, remain.
Last year FRA published its report on the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.
Without adequate data, government and civil society cannot formulate effective responses to antisemitism that continues to haunt Europe. FRA’s latest annual overview of antisemitism data 2008-2018 identifies large gaps in recording antisemitic incidents in a way that allows to collect adequate official data across the EU.
The Irish police force, the Garda Síochána, invited FRA to give a presentation on the experiences of discrimination, harassment and violence of Muslims and people of African descent across the EU.
The Austrian Chamber of Labour organised a workshop to discuss the results of a recent study on discrimination with experts from European institutions, trade unions, Equality bodies and civil society.
FRA will address a conference on combating antisemitism in the OSCE region.
On 5 February, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will meet EU Commissioners to better understand their priorities and explore how FRA can support their work.
On 23 January, FRA will take part in the 10-year seminar of the European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE).
The FRA Director will take part in a two-day event from 20 to 21 January to mark the 75th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz where he will speak about antisemitism today drawing on FRA’s survey work.
On 19 January, Filippo de Robilant, vice-chair of FRA’s Management Board will represent the agency at the Ministerial Conference of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA).
FRA will take part in a seminar that will assess tools for monitoring, analysing and tackling anti-Muslim hatred online.
On 13 November, FRA’s Director will participate in a conference debate on the experiences of discrimination and hate crime of people of African descent in Luxembourg.
Partners involved in ‘Black History Month EU 2019’ (#BHMEU) will gather for a day of capacity building, networking and reflection in Brussels on 5 November.
FRA’s Director will attend the Global Forum of the American Jewish Committee on 3 and 4 June in Washington DC.
The Spanish Diplomatic School and Casa Àrabe is organising a course on Islam and Muslims today: foundations, diversity and dynamics of change.
The agency will host a roundtable discussion on fighting antisemitism in Austria at FRA on 30 April.
The agency will present findings from its Being Black in the EU report to the UN’s Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent in Geneva from 25 to 29 March.
On 20 March, the High Level Group on combatting racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance will meet in Brussels.
From 20 to 21 March, the EU High Level Group on Non-Discrimination, Equality and Diversity (HLG) will gather in Brussels to discuss recent developments at the EU and national level.
The agency will take part in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s Regional Forum on Sustainable Development from 21 to 22 March in Geneva.
UN Women has invited the agency to join its dialogue on women and girls of African descent on 14 March, as a part of the official programme of the 63rd session of the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) which takes place in New York.
The agency will take part in a session on modernising methods of non-formal education to mark the opening of the National Museum of Jewish History and of the Holocaust in Romania.
The agency will take part in a working-level meeting organised on 11 March in Paris by the French inter-Ministerial Delegation on combating racism, antisemitism and homophobia (DILCRAH).
The agency is facilitating a meeting of the Equality Data Subgroup in London from 7 to 8 March.
On 6 February in Bratislava, the agency will speak at a high-level conference on combating antisemitism in the OSCE region about its findings on the experiences of Jewish people of hate crime and discrimination.