Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

Products
12
December
2018
This paper discusses the evolution of European Court of Human Rights case law relating
to hate crime, providing an update on the most recent rulings. Approaching hate crime
from a fundamental rights perspective, it shows how Member State authorities’ duty to
effectively investigate the bias motivation of crimes flows from key human rights
instruments, such as the European Convention on Human Rights.
Michael O'Flaherty focuses on the situation of the Jewish community living in the EU.
10
December
2018
This report outlines the main findings of FRA’s second survey on Jewish people’s experiences with hate crime, discrimination and antisemitism in the European Union – the biggest survey of Jewish people ever conducted worldwide. Covering 12 EU Member States, the survey reached almost 16,500 individuals who identify as being Jewish. It follows up on the agency’s first survey, conducted in seven countries in 2012.
5
December
2018
Last versions available are EL and NL
11 March 2021
This guide explains what profiling is, the legal frameworks that regulate it, and why conducting profiling lawfully is both necessary to comply with fundamental rights and crucial for effective policing and border management. The guide also provides practical guidance on how to avoid unlawful profiling in police and border management operations.
4
December
2018
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits both the EU and all of its Member States to realising the right of persons with disabilities to live independently in the community – which includes achieving deinstitutionalisation for those residing in institutional settings. But much remains to be done to make this a reality in practice. This report presents the main insights gained during fieldwork on the drivers of and barriers to deinstitutionalisation. Focusing on the local level, it gives voice to a diverse set of actors – most importantly, to people with disabilities themselves.
Black people in the EU face unacceptable difficulties in getting a decent job because of their skin colour. Racist harassment also remains all too common.
Black people in the EU face unacceptable difficulties in simply finding somewhere to live because of their skin colour.
28
November
2018
Almost twenty years after adoption of EU laws forbidding discrimination, people of African descent in the EU face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. This report outlines selected results from FRA's second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II) carried out in 2016. It examines the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.
16
November
2018
This report presents the main insights gained during the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s project on local engagement for Roma inclusion, which explores how to best involve Roma in integration efforts at the local level. Bringing together local authorities and residents, especially Roma, it investigated what aspects work, which ones do not, and why this is the case.
9
November
2018
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats,
harassment, discrimination and unequal treatment, property damage and graffiti or other
forms of speech or text, including on the internet. The present report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by
international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European
Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
26
October
2018
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ 2018 Fundamental Rights Forum
brought together more than 700 human rights champions at a time of
widening social divisions and increasingly polarised politics across
Europe.
17
October
2018
Almost 25 million children under 18 are at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. Poverty deprives children of educational
opportunities, childcare, access to health care, adequate food and housing, family support and even protection from violence.
This report outlines data and survey findings that highlight the magnitude of child poverty in the EU, but also presents tools
available to counter this phenomenon and keep track of progress made.
20
September
2018
With enormous volumes of data generated every day, more and more decisions are based on data analysis and algorithms. This can bring welcome benefits, such as consistency and objectivity, but algorithms also entail great risks. A FRA focus paper looks at how the use of automation in decision making can result in, or exacerbate, discrimination.
12
September
2018
In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
29
August
2018
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
19
July
2018
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived
and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents
FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education
and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
21
June
2018
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality. In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.
6
June
2018
Finnish version now available
27 January 2020
European societies are not getting any younger! It is a simple truth we must face both about ourselves and Europe as a whole. In two generations, by 2080, those aged 65 or above will account for almost 30% of the European Union’s population.
6
June
2018
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern.
30
May
2018
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways. This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area particularly affected by technological developments.
FRA trained members of the Equinet working group on research and data on how to engage with hard-to-reach groups in the collection of equality data.
FRA attended an online management committee meeting of the EU Roma network.
The pandemic triggered unprecedented EU financial support to counter the social impact of Covid-19. Many people in the EU, especially vulnerable people, faced reduced access to healthcare, childcare, education and the internet. This has led to excess mortality, poverty, unemployment and social exclusion. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2022 outlines the pandemic’s wide-ranging impact on social rights. It also suggests how to address increasing inequalities and threats to societal cohesion.
FRA took part in the Council of Europe-EU Joint Child Participation4Europe project conference.
This year’s International Day Against Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia on 17 May takes place against the backdrop of war in Ukraine. The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) welcomes the solidarity shown across the EU countries. It urges all countries to treat everyone in all their diversity including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex (LGBTI+) people fleeing the war equally and with respect. So, they too enjoy the same fundamental rights protection as others and can live freely.
On 22 April, FRA took part in a conference organised by the Vienna Anti-Discrimination Agency for LGBTIQ Affairs (WASt) on queer youth issues.
Additional data from FRA’s Fundamental Rights Survey are now available online as part of the Agency’s data visualisation.
FRA gave a presentation to the national implementation of the EU Anti-racism action plan 2020-2025 subgroup on 8 April.
With war still raging in Ukraine, Europe needs to pay special attention to Roma seeking sanctuary in the European Union, says the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) on International Roma Day. FRA is concerned about allegations of difficulties and possible discrimination at the EU borders. It recommends that authorities take appropriate action and investigate any such complaints in line with EU law.
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights issue the second edition of their popular handbook on European child rights law.
The first-ever EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 2021, led to the EU child rights network. It met for the first time on 31 March.
The handbook on European non-discrimination law - 2018 edition - is now also available in Estonian, Danish, Latvian and Maltese.
FRA facilitated a parallel session during an online conference on the digital dimension of violence against women.
FRA took part in Eurofound’s virtual consultation on the next European Working Conditions Survey (2024 edition).
FRA spoke about the state of play of child poverty and social exclusion in Europe on 4 March.
FRA took part in an event to discuss the role of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) in monitoring implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).
On 24 February, FRA, together with OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), facilitated a workshop in Cyprus for law enforcement officers and other relevant partners.
This year is European Year of Youth. FRA supports this important initiative to listen to and engage with young people across the EU. We will continue to regularly meet youth representatives to address their concerns and give them a voice through our evidence and data.
On 26 January, FRA gave a presentation on measuring non-discrimination and equality through surveys at a meeting of the Praia Group Task Team on Non-Discrimination and Equality.
The online data explorer from the Roma and Travellers survey is now available.
FRA invites civil society organisations, registered in its Fundamental Rights Platform, to take part in an online Roma meeting on 10 November.
-
FRA will present its new report on ‘Human Rights Cities in the EU: a framework for reinforcing rights locally’ at a conference on building equal cities.
FRA will join an event in Sweden that will look at the impact of the pandemic on equality and human rights, and ways forward.
On 28 October, the FRA Director will participate in a virtual Slovenian Presidency conference on 'Stamping out hate crime and hate speech – Effective responses to hate crimes and hate speech online, and protection of victims'.
FRA will present key findings from its report on encouraging hate crime reporting during an online hate crime conference.
FRA will present results from its Roma and Traveller Survey and its hate crime work to a webinar organised by CEPOL, the EU’s law enforcement training agency.
The FRA Director will take part in the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism.
FRA’s Director will virtually join celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the European Social Charter.
The annual meeting of the European Platform for Roma Inclusion takes place on 20 September.
FRA, together with the Public Defender of Rights and the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic will co-host a seminar on developing human rights indicators for monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (CRPD).
FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will take part in the Human Rights Forum conference in Copenhagen at this year's WorldPride.
On 22 June, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will speak about young people as agents of change during a youth conference organised by the Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the EU.
FRA will take part in a meeting of the European Commission’s subgroup on national action plans against racism.
On 15 June, FRA will take part in an online round table discussion on research into people’s attitudes concerning fundamental rights. The Ministry of Justice of Finland organises the event.
FRA’s Director will take part in the annual structured dialogue between the European Parliament’s Employment Committee and Helena Dalli, EU Equality Commissioner.
-
The FRA Director will join discussions on environmental sustainability and equality as part of EU Green Week 2021. The European Green Week 2021 runs from 31 May to 4 June.
FRA will give a keynote speech during the GUARANTEE project’s final conference on 27 May on the right to education for all in European cities.
The FRA Director will share key insights from FRA’s body of evidence on racism and racial discrimination during a high-level conference on racial discrimination.
FRA will join panel discussions on 8 April, International Roma Day, organised by the Austrian parliamentary president.