Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

Products
4
December
2018
The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities commits both the EU and all of its Member States to realising the right of persons with disabilities to live independently in the community – which includes achieving deinstitutionalisation for those residing in institutional settings. But much remains to be done to make this a reality in practice. This report presents the main insights gained during fieldwork on the drivers of and barriers to deinstitutionalisation. Focusing on the local level, it gives voice to a diverse set of actors – most importantly, to people with disabilities themselves.
Black people in the EU face unacceptable difficulties in getting a decent job because of their skin colour. Racist harassment also remains all too common.
Black people in the EU face unacceptable difficulties in simply finding somewhere to live because of their skin colour.
28
November
2018
Almost twenty years after adoption of EU laws forbidding discrimination, people of African descent in the EU face widespread and entrenched prejudice and exclusion. This report outlines selected results from FRA's second large-scale EU-wide survey on migrants and minorities (EU-MIDIS II) carried out in 2016. It examines the experiences of almost 6,000 people of African descent in 12 EU Member States.
16
November
2018
This report presents the main insights gained during the EU Fundamental Rights Agency’s project on local engagement for Roma inclusion, which explores how to best involve Roma in integration efforts at the local level. Bringing together local authorities and residents, especially Roma, it investigated what aspects work, which ones do not, and why this is the case.
9
November
2018
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats,
harassment, discrimination and unequal treatment, property damage and graffiti or other
forms of speech or text, including on the internet. The present report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by
international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European
Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
26
October
2018
The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights’ 2018 Fundamental Rights Forum
brought together more than 700 human rights champions at a time of
widening social divisions and increasingly polarised politics across
Europe.
17
October
2018
Almost 25 million children under 18 are at risk of poverty or social exclusion in the EU. Poverty deprives children of educational
opportunities, childcare, access to health care, adequate food and housing, family support and even protection from violence.
This report outlines data and survey findings that highlight the magnitude of child poverty in the EU, but also presents tools
available to counter this phenomenon and keep track of progress made.
20
September
2018
With enormous volumes of data generated every day, more and more decisions are based on data analysis and algorithms. This can bring welcome benefits, such as consistency and objectivity, but algorithms also entail great risks. A FRA focus paper looks at how the use of automation in decision making can result in, or exacerbate, discrimination.
12
September
2018
In November 2017, the European Commission requested FRA’s support in evaluating the impact on fundamental rights of the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur) Regulation. Further to this request, FRA reviewed the work of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) and analysed cooperation agreements concluded by EU Member States with third countries which are relevant for the exchange of information for the purposes of Eurosur. This report presents the main findings of such review.
29
August
2018
The founding treaties, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and secondary EU law all provide for EU citizens’ freedom to move and reside freely in any EU country of their choice. Growing numbers of citizens, and their family members, are making use of this freedom and related rights, such as the right not to be discriminated against based on nationality and the right to vote in certain elections in the host Member State. But making these rights a reality remains a challenge. This report presents an EU-wide, comparative overview of the application of the Free Movement Directive (2004/38/EC) across the 28 Member States based on a review of select case law at national level.
19
July
2018
Across the European Union, Member States are faced with the challenge of integrating Europe’s most deprived
and disenfranchised minority groups. As a follow up to the EU-MIDIS II findings on Roma, this report presents
FRA’s findings relating to the issues of education and employment. Encouraging Roma participation in education
and employment equips communities with higher incomes, better life opportunities and greater social inclusion.
21
June
2018
Across the European Union, people face hatred because of their skin colour, ethnicity, religion, gender or sexuality. In response, the EU and its Member States have introduced laws against hate crime and support services for victims. But these will only fulfil their potential if victims report hate-motivated harassment and violence to the police, and if police officers record such incidents as hate crimes. This report provides rich and detailed information on hate crime recording and data collection systems across the EU, including any systemic cooperation with civil society.
6
June
2018
Finnish version now available
27 January 2020
European societies are not getting any younger! It is a simple truth we must face both about ourselves and Europe as a whole. In two generations, by 2080, those aged 65 or above will account for almost 30% of the European Union’s population.
6
June
2018
The year 2017 brought both progress and setbacks in terms of fundamental rights protection. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2018 reviews major developments in the field, identifying both achievements and remaining areas of concern.
30
May
2018
We live in a world of big data, where technological developments in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence have changed the way we live. Decisions and processes concerning everyday life are increasingly automated, based on data. This affects fundamental rights in various ways. This focus paper specifically deals with discrimination, a fundamental rights area particularly affected by technological developments.
17
May
2018
Civil society organisations in the European Union play a crucial role in promoting fundamental
rights, but it has become harder for them do so – due to both legal and practical restrictions.
This summary outlines the main
findings and FRA’s opinions on the different
types and patterns of challenges faced by civil society
organisations across the EU,
25
April
2018
The methods used to determine the age of
an applicant may include “invasive” medical tests which interfere with the rights of the child, including their right to dignity,
integrity and privacy. It is often a challenge to find the right balance between protecting children from harm and promoting
their participation in these procedures. This report provides important insights and identifies the implications of collecting
children’s biometric data and conducting age assessments.
25
April
2018
The right to access justice and all other relevant procedural rights are not just rights in themselves; they also protect against violations of every other right. Respect for children’s rights in the area of justice is therefore essential. International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law, and national legislation provide a number of relevant rights.
The EU's Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) work together to help states improve their ability to record and collect hate crime data through national workshops.
On 22 April, FRA took part in a conference organised by the Vienna Anti-Discrimination Agency for LGBTIQ Affairs (WASt) on queer youth issues.
Additional data from FRA’s Fundamental Rights Survey are now available online as part of the Agency’s data visualisation.
FRA gave a presentation to the national implementation of the EU Anti-racism action plan 2020-2025 subgroup on 8 April.
With war still raging in Ukraine, Europe needs to pay special attention to Roma seeking sanctuary in the European Union, says the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) on International Roma Day. FRA is concerned about allegations of difficulties and possible discrimination at the EU borders. It recommends that authorities take appropriate action and investigate any such complaints in line with EU law.
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), the Council of Europe and the European Court of Human Rights issue the second edition of their popular handbook on European child rights law.
The first-ever EU Strategy on the Rights of the Child, adopted in 2021, led to the EU child rights network. It met for the first time on 31 March.
The handbook on European non-discrimination law - 2018 edition - is now also available in Estonian, Danish, Latvian and Maltese.
FRA facilitated a parallel session during an online conference on the digital dimension of violence against women.
FRA took part in Eurofound’s virtual consultation on the next European Working Conditions Survey (2024 edition).
FRA spoke about the state of play of child poverty and social exclusion in Europe on 4 March.
FRA took part in an event to discuss the role of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) in monitoring implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD).
On 24 February, FRA, together with OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR), facilitated a workshop in Cyprus for law enforcement officers and other relevant partners.
This year is European Year of Youth. FRA supports this important initiative to listen to and engage with young people across the EU. We will continue to regularly meet youth representatives to address their concerns and give them a voice through our evidence and data.
On 26 January, FRA gave a presentation on measuring non-discrimination and equality through surveys at a meeting of the Praia Group Task Team on Non-Discrimination and Equality.
The online data explorer from the Roma and Travellers survey is now available.
On 19 January, FRA held the third meeting of the Working Group on improving hate crime recording, data collection and reporting.
A new report looks at how EU agencies address the socioeconomic effects of sustainable development.
The Handbook on European non-discrimination law – 2018 edition is now also available in Swedish.
The Coronavirus pandemic exposed sharp socio-economic inequalities across Europe. Roma children, migrants, people with disabilities, just some of the already marginalised groups that further bore the brunt of the impact of the pandemic. Human Rights Day is a chance to remind ourselves of how reducing inequalities can build more equal societies and a better world. Advancing rights can offer hope and opportunity to millions through equal access to such primary services like education, jobs and healthcare.
On 25 November, FRA spoke about the impact of the pandemic on people with disabilities. It drew from its Fundamental Rights Report 2021.
On 28 October, the FRA Director will participate in a virtual Slovenian Presidency conference on 'Stamping out hate crime and hate speech – Effective responses to hate crimes and hate speech online, and protection of victims'.
FRA will present key findings from its report on encouraging hate crime reporting during an online hate crime conference.
FRA will present results from its Roma and Traveller Survey and its hate crime work to a webinar organised by CEPOL, the EU’s law enforcement training agency.
The FRA Director will take part in the Malmö International Forum on Holocaust Remembrance and Combating Antisemitism.
FRA’s Director will virtually join celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the European Social Charter.
The annual meeting of the European Platform for Roma Inclusion takes place on 20 September.
FRA, together with the Public Defender of Rights and the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic will co-host a seminar on developing human rights indicators for monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (CRPD).
FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will take part in the Human Rights Forum conference in Copenhagen at this year's WorldPride.
On 22 June, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will speak about young people as agents of change during a youth conference organised by the Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the EU.
FRA will take part in a meeting of the European Commission’s subgroup on national action plans against racism.
On 15 June, FRA will take part in an online round table discussion on research into people’s attitudes concerning fundamental rights. The Ministry of Justice of Finland organises the event.
FRA’s Director will take part in the annual structured dialogue between the European Parliament’s Employment Committee and Helena Dalli, EU Equality Commissioner.
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The FRA Director will join discussions on environmental sustainability and equality as part of EU Green Week 2021. The European Green Week 2021 runs from 31 May to 4 June.
FRA will give a keynote speech during the GUARANTEE project’s final conference on 27 May on the right to education for all in European cities.
The FRA Director will share key insights from FRA’s body of evidence on racism and racial discrimination during a high-level conference on racial discrimination.
FRA will join panel discussions on 8 April, International Roma Day, organised by the Austrian parliamentary president.
FRA will present results from its Roma and Travellers Survey during a webinar organised by European Public Health Alliance (EPHA).
FRA Director will deliver a keynote speech during a high-level online conference on protecting vulnerable adults across Europe. The conference provides an opportunity to reflect on the current situation and look ahead to what steps are necessary to ensure that all members of our diverse societies can enjoy their fundamental rights, including equal access to justice.
FRA will join panel discussions on 23 March during Spain’s anti-racist week, organised by its Ministry of Equality.