Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.


International treaties, the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Union (EU) secondary law and national legislation provide a number of rights to citizens. The maps and tables presented show the various patterns concerning age requirements for children to acquire rights in the EU. They also identify inconsistencies, protection gaps and restrictions deriving from different age thresholds. The aim is to assist EU Member States in addressing these issues and to facilitate the EU in exercising its competence to support and coordinate Member States’ actions related to children and youth.
This report provides an overview of data on antisemitism as recorded by
international organisations and by official and unofficial sources in the 28 European
Union (EU) Member States, based on their own definitions and categorisations.
Muslims living in the EU face discrimination in a broad range of settings – and particularly when looking for work,
on the job, and when trying to access public or private services. The report examines how characteristics – such
as an individual's first and last name, skin colour and the wearing of visible religious symbols like a headscarf,
for example – may trigger discriminatory treatment and harassment.
The Agency, in close cooperation with the Maltese Presidency of the EU Council, held a high-level symposium where the fundamental rights issues that are currently high on the EU’s political agenda were discussed.
Up to one third of migrants arriving in the European Union since the summer of 2015 have been children. The current emphasis on speedier asylum processing and making returns more effective may trigger increased use of immigration detention, possibly also affecting children. The detention of children implicates various fundamental rights and will only be in line with EU law if limited to exceptional cases. This report aims to support practitioners in implementing relevant polices in line with applicable law by outlining available safeguards against unlawful and arbitrary detention and highlighting promising practices.
This report assesses asylum seekers’ and refugees’ opportunities to access early
childhood education and primary, secondary and tertiary education and training.
It identifies measures available for their support, as well as possible areas for
This report reviews how asylum claims based on sexual
orientation and gender identity are assessed and analyses the existence of
specific reception measures for LGBTI persons.
Miltos Pavlou, Senior Programme Manager at the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, talks about the participation of migrants and their descendants in the EU.
Around 2.5 million children participate in judicial proceedings across the European Union (EU) every year, affected by parental divorce or as victims of, or witnesses to, crime. Although their effective participation in such proceedings is vital for improving the operation of justice, the treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern. FRA investigated to what extent children’s rights to be heard, to be informed, to be protected, and to non-discrimination are fulfilled in practice.
The Agency’s Director, Michael O’Flaherty, took part in a meeting of the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) on 9 February.
This focus section outlines the specific protection needs of separated children, and highlights current responses and promising practices among EU Member States.
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats,
harassment, property damage and graffiti or other forms of text, including on the
internet. The present report relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are
recorded by international organisations, and by official and unofficial sources in the
28 EU Member States.
This opinion analyses the effects on children of the proposed recast Dublin Regulation. It covers child-specific rules as well as provisions relating to all asylum applicants that significantly affect children.
This video message was produced for a holocaust education training for public officials.
Media content and political discourse in EU Member States, whether online or
offline, show incitement to discrimination, hatred or violence on different
grounds, as evidence collected by FRA reveals. The growing reliance on the internet as the main source of
information for many enables the fast spread of often unverified statements
that could also incite to hatred.
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen
fundamental rights in 2015. Some of these efforts produced important progress; others fell short of their aims. Meanwhile,
various global developments brought new – and exacerbated existing – challenges.
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued
numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen fundamental rights in 2015.
FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2016 summarises and analyses major
developments in the fundamental rights field, noting both progress made
and persisting obstacles. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the
main developments in the thematic areas covered and a synopsis of the
evidence supporting these opinions. In so doing, it provides a compact but
informative overview of the main fundamental rights challenges confronting
the EU and its Member States.
This opinion addresses the designation and operation of a framework established under Article 33 (2) of the CRPD at EU level (EU Framework). It aims to clarify the requirements of an EU Framework in light of the monitoring practice and jurisprudence of the CRPD Committee and – with regard to the concept of independence –the Committee interpreting the Paris Principles on the establishment of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs).
Hate crime is the most severe expression of discrimination, and a core fundamental rights abuse. Various initiatives
target such crime, but most hate crime across the EU remains unreported and unprosecuted, leaving victims
without redress. To counter this trend, it is essential for Member States to improve access to justice for victims. Drawing on interviews with representatives from criminal courts, public prosecutors’ offices, the police, and NGOs
involved in supporting hate crime victims, this report sheds light on the diverse hurdles that impede victims’ access
to justice and the proper recording of hate crime.
The fundamental rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are often not respected across the EU. Public officials and other professionals in education, healthcare and law enforcement are entrusted with the duty to ensure that everyone’s fundamental rights are protected and promoted.
On 26 September, FRA took part in a panel discussion on memory, stereotypes and preventing antisemitism following an invitation from the Office of the Antismitism Coordinator of North Rhine Westphalia.
FRA took part in the high-level conference in Paris from 26 to 27 September to mark the 25th Anniversary of the Council of Europe’s European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI).
Migrant women face multiple challenges fully integrating into European society. This is often due to inequalities resulting from the combined effect of their gender, migrant status and ethnic background, as FRA’s latest report testifies. It underlines the need for targeted, gender-sensitive measures to compensate for such inequalities.
Many young Jewish Europeans face antisemitic harassment in Europe, but are also very resilient as they clearly express their Jewish identity, finds a report published today by the European Commission and FRA. Rising hate speech and intolerance towards them shows the urgent need for continued concerted efforts to adequately address society’s longstanding and persistent hostility towards Jews.
The dataset from FRA’s second antisemitism survey is now available for further use by researchers. The dataset contains a wealth of information from over 16,000 Jews in 12 EU Member States about their perceptions and experiences of antisemitism.
FRA took part a roundtable discussion on combatting anti-Muslim hatred and discrimination and a workshop on synergies and good practices on tackling anti-Muslim racism and discrimination.
On 20 June in Brussels, FRA took part in the first meeting of the European Commission working group on the implementation of the Council Declaration on the fight against antisemitism.
Many people across the EU risk being left behind, as growing intolerance and attacks on people’s fundamental rights continue to erode the considerable progress achieved to date, finds FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2019.
The summary outlining the main findings of FRA’s second survey on Jewish people’s experiences of hate crime, discrimination and antisemitism in the EU – the biggest survey of Jewish people ever conducted worldwide - are now available online in 12 languages: Croatian, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Romanian Spanish and Swedish.
Across Europe, recent elections and referendums have made one thing very clear: voting matters. How we vote – and whether we vote at all – can change our societies for generations.
Karoline Edtstadler, State Secretary at the Austrian Ministry of the Interior, and Ariel Muzicant, Vice-President of the European Jewish Congress, will speak at an event in Vienna on 30 April which addresses antisemitism in Austria.
Too many people with an ethnic or migrant background are still being held back in the job market. This is despite laws against racial discrimination and for equal opportunities in employment that have been in place for decades, the heads of three European human rights institutions said in a joint statement on today’s International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
Across the EU, many Member States are improving their equality data to help policymakers combat discrimination and challenge prejudices. To inspire others, the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights has just published an online compendium of nearly 40 practices from 15 countries on the collection and use of equality data.
The Romanian Presidency of the EU Council held a conference on the fight against antisemitism: a common approach to better protect Jewish communities in Europe – from policy to action.
With antisemitism once again on the rise, International Holocaust Remembrance Day on 27 January is a moment to reaffirm our commitment to human rights and remember the millions who were killed during the Second World War.
Throughout 2019, the agency will continue to work steadfastly for everyone to promote and protect human rights, in a year that marks 10 years of the European Union’s very own bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights.
The agency’s Director spoke at the Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting on 6 December 2018 on antisemitism.
The agency attended the 12th EU-Israel seminar on 17 December on combating racism, xenophobia and antisemitism.
The year 2018 saw many significant anniversaries in the world of human rights. It was the year that the Universal Declaration of Human Rights turned 70 and the European Convention on Human Rights 65.
On 13 December in Madrid, the agency took part in the fifth Congress of Human Rights of Spanish Lawyers, devoted to preventing and combating hate crime.
The agency will take part in meetings of the European Commission’s Inter-Service Group on 22 January in Brussels on the integration of third-country nationals.
The agency will take part in meetings of the European Commission’s Inter-Service Group on 22 January in Brussels on the integration of third-country nationals.
The European Parliament’s Working Group on Antisemitism has invited the Agency to present the findings of its second survey on discrimination and hate crimes against Jews.
The Agency’s second antisemitism survey results will be officially launched at midday on 10 December in Brussels at a joint FRA, European Commission and Austrian Presidency event.
On 17 December in Geneva, the FRA Director will present findings of FRA’s second survey on discrimination and hate crimes against Jews in the EU as part of a panel discussion on combating antisemitism in Europe and beyond.
The Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, one of the so-called Special Procedures established by the United Nations Human Rights Council, will visit FRA on 10 December.
FRA’s Director will launch the Agency's new database on anti-Muslim hatred during a high-level meeting about tackling discrimination against Muslims in the EU, organised by the European Commission in Brussels.
The Agency will take part in the meeting of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in Ferrara on 28 November.
The Agency will speak at a conference London on 26 November on gendered racism and antisemitism.
The Agency will launch its report on being black in the EU at an event in the European Parliament in Brussels on 28 November.
On 16 and 17 October the High Level group on combating racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance will meet in Vienna.
A delegation from the Swedish Parliament’s EU Committee secretariat visits the Agency on 3 September.
The Agency will join a round table discussion on combating antisemitism on 12 September in The Hague.
On 12 and 13 July 2018, the FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will participate in the informal Justice and Home Affairs Council in Innsbruck at the invitation of the Austrian presidency.
The AJC’s Jacob Blaustein Institute for the Advancement of Human Rights together with Dr Ahmed Shaheed, the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, have convened an expert consultation on monitoring and combatting antisemitism.
As a result of the Agency’s outreach to funders and foundations, the Ariadne network invited the Agency to participate in a workshop on countering racial and religious discrimination.
The FRA Director will join discussions on freedom of religion, antisemitism and Islamophobia during a joint meeting of the Council’s Working Parties on Human Rights (COHOM) and on Fundamental Rights, Citizens Rights and Free Movement of Persons (FREMP).
On 14 June, the Agency will attend the Council’s Working Party on 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in Brussels.
On 13 and 14 June the High Level group on combatting racism, xenophobia and other forms of intolerance will meet in Brussels.
The Agency will contribute to the seventh meeting of the Education and Training 2020 Working Group on promoting citizenship and the common values of freedom, tolerance and non-discrimination through education.