Equality

Equality, non-discrimination and racism

Equality is a core value of the EU. You have the right to fair treatment regardless of who you are, what you believe, or how you chose to live.

We carry out research and share expertise to help fight discrimination, inequality and racism in all its forms.

Highlights

  • Report / Paper / Summary
    29
    May
    2024
    Ahead of the EU elections, this report explores the political participation of people with disabilities. Although some Member States removed restrictions on the right to vote and to stand for elections, barriers still exist. This report is an update of new developments following FRA’s last report published in 2014. It sets out ways forward to ensure people with disabilities have equal opportunities, in line with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    14
    May
    2024
    FRA’s third LGBTIQ survey shows that people still experience hate-motivated violence and discrimination. Trans and intersex people face even greater victimisation. Yet, signs of progress show that the EU’s and Member States’ efforts can positively affect people’s lives. More LGBTIQ people are open about their sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression and sex characteristics.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    10
    April
    2024
    Racism in the police can include discriminatory racial profiling practices through to excessive use of force. Incidents like these highlight deeper systemic issues that need addressing. Many in society are affected by racism in policing, not only the individuals or communities targeted. Lack of trust in policing can fuel social exclusion and damages the foundations of a fair and equal society, however promising practices are developing to address these issues. This is the first EU-wide report on racism in policing. FRA’s findings identify gaps in regulatory frameworks and propose concrete steps for action.
  • Report / Paper / Summary
    25
    October
    2023
    FRA's first Being Black in the EU report exposed widespread and entrenched racism against people of African descent in Europe. Now updated with new data, this report revisits the situation revealing persistent racial discrimination, harassment and violence. Overall, experiences of racial discrimination increased in the EU countries since 2016, reaching as high as 77%. The lack of progress is alarming despite binding anti-discrimination law in the EU since 2000 and significant EU policy developments since then.
Products
The Agency, in close cooperation with the Maltese Presidency of the EU Council, held a high-level symposium where the fundamental rights issues that are currently high on the EU’s political agenda were discussed.
22
June
2017
Up to one third of migrants arriving in the European Union since the summer of 2015 have been children. The current emphasis on speedier asylum processing and making returns more effective may trigger increased use of immigration detention, possibly also affecting children. The detention of children implicates various fundamental rights and will only be in line with EU law if limited to exceptional cases. This report aims to support practitioners in implementing relevant polices in line with applicable law by outlining available safeguards against unlawful and arbitrary detention and highlighting promising practices.
19
May
2017
This report assesses asylum seekers’ and refugees’ opportunities to access early
childhood education and primary, secondary and tertiary education and training.
It identifies measures available for their support, as well as possible areas for
improvement.
24
March
2017
This report reviews how asylum claims based on sexual
orientation and gender identity are assessed and analyses the existence of
specific reception measures for LGBTI persons.
Miltos Pavlou, Senior Programme Manager at the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, talks about the participation of migrants and their descendants in the EU.
22
February
2017
Around 2.5 million children participate in judicial proceedings across the European Union (EU) every year, affected by parental divorce or as victims of, or witnesses to, crime. Although their effective participation in such proceedings is vital for improving the operation of justice, the treatment of children in justice systems remains a concern. FRA investigated to what extent children’s rights to be heard, to be informed, to be protected, and to non-discrimination are fulfilled in practice.
The Agency’s Director, Michael O’Flaherty, took part in a meeting of the European Parliament’s Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs (LIBE) on 9 February.
20
December
2016
This focus section outlines the specific protection needs of separated children, and highlights current responses and promising practices among EU Member States.
13
December
2016
Antisemitism can be expressed in the form of verbal and physical attacks, threats,
harassment, property damage and graffiti or other forms of text, including on the
internet. The present report relates to manifestations of antisemitism as they are
recorded by international organisations, and by official and unofficial sources in the
28 EU Member States.
8
December
2016
This opinion analyses the effects on children of the proposed recast Dublin Regulation. It covers child-specific rules as well as provisions relating to all asylum applicants that significantly affect children.
29
November
2016
Some 80% of Roma surveyed live below their country’s at-risk-of-poverty threshold; every third Roma lives in housing without tap water; every third Roma child lives in a household where someone went to bed hungry at least once in the previous month; and 50% of Roma between the ages of six and 24 do not attend school. This EU-MIDIS II report underscores an unsettling but unavoidable reality: the European Union’s largest ethnic minority continues to face intolerable discrimination and unequal access to vital services.
This video message was produced for a holocaust education training for public officials.
17
November
2016
Media content and political discourse in EU Member States, whether online or
offline, show incitement to discrimination, hatred or violence on different
grounds, as evidence collected by FRA reveals. The growing reliance on the internet as the main source of
information for many enables the fast spread of often unverified statements
that could also incite to hatred.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) is the first binding international human rights instrument to specifically address disability. Its aim is to "promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity".
30
May
2016
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen
fundamental rights in 2015. Some of these efforts produced important progress; others fell short of their aims. Meanwhile,
various global developments brought new – and exacerbated existing – challenges.
30
May
2016
The European Union (EU) and its Member States introduced and pursued
numerous initiatives to safeguard and strengthen fundamental rights in 2015.
FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2016 summarises and analyses major
developments in the fundamental rights field, noting both progress made
and persisting obstacles. This publication presents FRA’s opinions on the
main developments in the thematic areas covered and a synopsis of the
evidence supporting these opinions. In so doing, it provides a compact but
informative overview of the main fundamental rights challenges confronting
the EU and its Member States.
20
May
2016
This opinion addresses the designation and operation of a framework established under Article 33 (2) of the CRPD at EU level (EU Framework). It aims to clarify the requirements of an EU Framework in light of the monitoring practice and jurisprudence of the CRPD Committee and – with regard to the concept of independence –the Committee interpreting the Paris Principles on the establishment of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs).
28
April
2016
Hate crime is the most severe expression of discrimination, and a core fundamental rights abuse. Various initiatives target such crime, but most hate crime across the EU remains unreported and unprosecuted, leaving victims without redress. To counter this trend, it is essential for Member States to improve access to justice for victims. Drawing on interviews with representatives from criminal courts, public prosecutors’ offices, the police, and NGOs involved in supporting hate crime victims, this report sheds light on the diverse hurdles that impede victims’ access to justice and the proper recording of hate crime.
16
March
2016
The fundamental rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are often not respected across the EU. Public officials and other professionals in education, healthcare and law enforcement are entrusted with the duty to ensure that everyone’s fundamental rights are protected and promoted.
11
December
2015
While awareness of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons is on the rise across the European Union, hurdles to their full enjoyment of their fundamental rights remain. This report updates FRA’s 2010 report on homophobia, transphobia and discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity.
FRA contributed to a discussion group on racial discrimination in access to and tenure of housing in Spain.
On 8 September, FRA took part in the kick-off meeting of the study on ‘Intersex people in the EU, a project of the European Commission’s Justice and Consumers Directorate-General.
Significant barriers to reporting hate crime across the EU hinder victims’ access to protection and justice, finds a new report of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA). Many victims do not report attacks, as it is too difficult or they do not trust the police. FRA calls on EU countries to encourage hate crime reporting, improve its recording and ensure victims can get support, protection and justice.
FRA presented key findings at two events from its latest Coronavirus Bulletin on ensuring fair and equal access to vaccines for all. The first took place on 23 June, during a webinar hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control.
Vaccination campaigns are beginning to bring results in the global struggle to tackle the Covid-19 pandemic. But there are setbacks in some countries. Particularly people in vulnerable situations, such as prisoners, homeless people and migrants, risk to be left behind in the deployment of Covid-19 vaccination, finds the Fundamental Rights Agency’s (FRA) latest Coronavirus bulletin. FRA calls on EU countries to ensure fair and equal access to vaccines for all.
The COVID-19 pandemic exposed gaps in respecting the fundamental rights to health, education, employment and social protection across society. FRA’s Fundamental Rights Report 2021 plots the pandemic’s wide-ranging impact on rights and suggests how best to address increasing inequalities and threats to societal cohesion.
A new paper by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) reveals the differences between people’s experiences with police stops. It shows that Black people, Asians and Roma are still more likely to be stopped and searched by police, which also affects their trust in policing. FRA will continue providing EU countries with data and guidance to support them in ensuring their policing practices respect people’s fundamental rights.
The American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) honoured FRA with its Inclusive Voices Award 2021.
Over 40 Embassies, Delegations and Permanent Missions all welcome 17 May as the International Day against Homophobia, Transphobia and Biphobia (IDAHOBIT), as a celebration of diversity and inclusion around the world.
There is still a long way to go for LGBTI equality. International Day against Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia (IDAHOBIT) on 17 May is a reminder to challenge the discrimination and violence that too many lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) people across Europe continue to face.
Discrimination remains a daily reality for many people across the EU despite 20 years of EU equality legislation. This finds the latest Opinion from the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights.
All societies still feel the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, but the challenges for Roma are particularly acute, say the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) and the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) on International Roma Day.
The pandemic poses unprecedented challenges for governments, health systems and societies at large, with many people in despair. We also witnessed solidarity with generosity, care and commitment towards the most vulnerable. This crisis offers us a unique opportunity to create more inclusive and equal societies, said the heads of four human rights institutions ahead of the International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.
Women in Europe continue to face widespread harassment and violence. Many limit where they go and whom they meet out of worry of being attacked. And when attacked, they often do not report it. These are some of the findings of the Fundamental Rights Agency’s (FRA) recent survey into people’s experiences with different types of crimes. On International Women’s Day, FRA calls for better support for women to ensure they can access their rights.
FRA’s Fundamentally Right podcast series launched on 19 January. The final episode, Law: a bird's eye view, with FRA's Gabriel Toggenburg, is now out.
Holocaust Remembrance Day is a time to honour and remember the millions of Jews, Roma, people with disabilities, gays and lesbians, and many others who fell victim to the horrors of Nazi persecution. Championing inclusion and tolerance towards others serves to honour their memory, says the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA).
FRA has today, 19 January, launched a new podcast, titled Fundamentally Right. The podcast charts how events inspired people dedicating their professional lives working for EU’s independent centre of reference and excellence for promoting and protecting human rights.
The dataset from FRA’s lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex (LGBTI) survey is now available for further use by researchers.
On 18 November, FRA will take part in the online meeting of the European Commission Working Group on Common Values and Inclusive Education.
FRA will take part in the annual EU-Israel high-level seminar on combating racism, xenophobia and antisemitism.
On 10 November, FRA will present the results of its EU LGBTI survey during the online workshop ‘LGBTI Discrimination: European and Local Perspectives and Actions’.
FRA will give a presentation on the results of its EU LGBTI survey, LGBTI rights in the EU and FRA’s research in this area to the Vienna Diplomatic Academy.
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FRA will take part in this year’s Internet Governance Forum (IGF), which runs virtually from 2-17 November. It will join the session on the role of the private sector in developing guidelines on the use of artificial intelligence.
The FRA Director will take part in an informal exchange on 9 November on integration and social cohesion with EU interior ministers and members of the European Commission.
On 15 October, the European Parliament will hold a public hearing on a European Citizens Initiative to promote minorities, and linguistic and cultural diversity. The organisers will present their initiative.
The FRA Director, Michael O’Flaherty will deliver a video message to an online seminar discussing its ‘A long way to go for LGBTI equality’ report.
FRA’s Director will address a panel discussion on rule of law, human rights, and religion. The discussion will take place on 16 October during the G20 interfaith forum.
The FRA Director will address the launch conference of the new EU Roma strategic framework for equality, inclusion and participation. He will draw on FRA’s Roma surveys underlining the persistent circle of poverty and discrimination many Roma and Travellers continue to endure.
FRA will facilitate the meeting of the Subgroup on Equality Data, under the EU High Level Group on Non-Discrimination, Equality and Diversity.
The UN Special Rapporteur on Minority Issues invited FRA’s Director to deliver a keynote speech during the opening of the UN’s European Regional Forum on hate speech, social media and minorities.
FRA’s Director will give a keynote speech at a conference on tackling gendered Islamophobia in Europe.
On 29 September, FRA’s Director Michael O’Flaherty speaks at an international conference on lessons learned from COVID-19 for strengthening older people’s rights in times of digitalisation.
On 28 September, FRA’s Director Michael O’Flaherty takes part in a seminar on how to best communicate equality and diversity messages.
FRA director will deliver a keynote speech on 10 September during an online conference tackling antisemitism.
On 16 July, FRA Director Michael O’Flaherty will present the results of the LGBTI survey to the LIBE Committee of the European Parliament.
On 14 July, FRA is invited to contribute to the reflection of the Working Party on Social Question of the EU Council.
The EU CRPD Framework will meet with the EU Equality Commissioner Helena Dalli on 7 July.
The FRA Director will join EU Equality Commissioner Helena Dalli for a seminar on racism and discrimination in the EU during the COVID-19 pandemic.